•  292
    Art and pornography
    Journal of Aesthetic Education 43 (3). 2009.
    This paper provides an in-depth review of Jerrold Levinson’s most recent work in aesthetics, focusing especially on his account of the incompatibility of art and pornography. The author argues that this account does not fit well with Levinson’s own intentional-historical definition of art and his Wollheimian account of depiction.
  •  31
    Een treffende gelijkenis. Over grappen en kunst
    Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 99 (4): 281-296. 2007.
  •  95
    Elephants, microscopes and free beauty: Reply to Davies
    Philosophical Quarterly 59 (235): 332-336. 2009.
    According to Stephen Davies, there is no such thing as free beauty. Using actual and imaginary examples, he tries to show that our aesthetic evaluations of objects inevitably pay heed to the kinds to which they belong or in which we judge them to belong. His examples are not as compelling as he thinks, however. Furthermore, nature looked at through a microscope (or a telescope) provides us with a particular class of counter-examples which have not been dealt with by Davies and which put consider…Read more
  •  18
    Bescheidenheid en asymmetrie
    Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 93 (2): 117-135. 2001.
  • Opmerkingen over het Gevoel van het Schone en het Verhevene (review)
    Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 2. 2007.
  •  185
    Art and Pornography: Philosophical Essays (edited book)
    with Jerrold Levinson
    Oxford University Press UK. 2012.
    Art and Pornography presents a series of essays which investigate the artistic status and aesthetic dimension of pornographic pictures, films, and literature, and explores the distinction, if there is any, between pornography and erotic art. Is there any overlap between art and pornography, or are the two mutually exclusive? If they are, why is that? If they are not, how might we characterize pornographic art or artistic pornography, and how might pornographic art be distinguished, if at all, fr…Read more
  •  239
    Intention, Interpretation and Contemporary Visual Art
    British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (2): 121-138. 2010.
    The role of the artist's intention in the interpretation of art has been the topic of a lively and ongoing discussion in analytic aesthetics. First, I sketch the current state of this debate, focusing especially on two competing views: actual and hypothetical intentionalism. Secondly, I discuss the search for a suitable test case, that is, a work of art that is interpreted differently by actual and hypothetical intentionalists, with only one of these interpretations being plausible. Many example…Read more
  •  186
    Challenging Partial Intentionalism
    Journal of Visual Arts Practice 7 (1): 85-94. 2008.
    Paisley Livingston claims that an artist’s intentions are successfully realized and hence determinate of the meaning of a work if and only if they are compatible and “mesh” with the linguistic and conventional meanings of the text or artefact taken in its target or intended context. I argue that this specific standard of success is not without its difficulties. First, I show how an artist’s intention can sometimes be constitutive of a work’s meaning even if there is no significant meshing betwee…Read more
  •  102
    Pornographic Art and the Aesthetics of Pornography (edited book)
    Palgrave-Macmillan. 2013.
    Art or Porn? The popular media will often choose this heading when reviewing the latest sexually explicit novel, film, or art exhibition. The underlying assumption seems to be that the work under discussion has to be one or the other, and cannot be both. But is this not a false dilemma? Can one really draw a sharp line between the pornographic and the artistic? Isn't it time to make room for pornographic art and for an aesthetic investigation of pornography? In answering these questions this boo…Read more
  •  443
    Art or Porn: Clear division or false dilemma?
    Philosophy and Literature 35 (1): 51-64. 2011.
    Jerrold Levinson conveniently summarizes the main argument of his essay "Erotic Art and Pornographic Pictures" in the following way:Erotic art consists of images centrally aimed at a certain sort of reception R1.Pornography consists of images centrally aimed at a certain sort of reception R2.R1 essentially involves attention to form/vehicle/medium/manner, and so entails treating images as in part opaque.R2 essentially excludes attention to form/vehicle/medium/manner, and so entails treating imag…Read more
  • Love, Friendship, and Casablanca
    Hermeneia 98-107. 2010.
  •  314
    Different Kinds and Aspects of Bullshit
    with Katrien8 Schaubroeck
    In Hardcastle Reisch (ed.), Bullshit and Philosophy, Open Court. 2006.
    In this paper, we aim to show that there is a particular kind of bullshit that is not dealt with in Harry Frankfurt’s and G.A. Cohen’s critiques of bullshit. We also point out the evaluative complexity of bullshit. Frankfurt and Cohen both stress its negative and possibly destructive aspects, but one might wonder whether bullshit need always and necessarily be reprehensible. We will argue that there are positive or at least neutral aspects to some kinds of bullshit.
  •  67
    What Is a Portrait?
    British Journal of Aesthetics 55 (3): 303-322. 2015.
    What I will aim for in answering the title question is extensional adequacy, that is, I will try to formulate an account that captures as much of the extension as possible of what we ordinarily think counts as a portrait. Two philosophers have recently and independently from one another embarked on the same project. Cynthia Freeland’s theory of portraiture, as it is developed in her book, Portraits and Persons, is discussed in Sections 1 and 2 of this paper. Sections 3 and 4 offer a critical exp…Read more
  •  168
    Drawing the Line: Art versus Pornography
    Philosophy Compass 6 (6): 385-397. 2011.
    Art and pornography are often thought to be mutually exclusive. The present article argues that this popular view is without adequate support. Section 1 looks at some of the classic ways of drawing the distinction between these two domains of representation. In Section 2, it is argued that the classic dichotomies may help to illuminate the differences between certain prototypical instances of pornography and art, but will not serve to justify the claim that pornography and art are fundamentally …Read more