•  6
    Human infection challenge studies involve intentionally infecting research participants with pathogens. There have been recent calls for more HCS to be conducted in low-income and middle-income countries, where many relevant diseases are endemic. HCS in general, and HCS in LMICs in particular, raise numerous ethical issues. This paper summarises the findings of a project that explored ethical and regulatory issues related to LMIC HCS via a review of relevant literature and 45 qualitative intervi…Read more
  •  6
    Invisible epidemics: ethics and asymptomatic infection (review)
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik
    Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1): 1-16. 2020.
    Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease, and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This phenomenon has a range of ethical implications for clinical medicine, public health, and infectious disease research. The implications of asymptomatic infection are especially significa…Read more
  •  1
    At the Centre
    Monash Bioethics Review 31 (2): 31-36. 2013.
  •  14
    Coronavirus Human Infection Challenge Studies: Assessing Potential Benefits and Risks
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik and George S. Heriot
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4): 709-715. 2020.
    Human infection challenge studies have been proposed as a means to accelerate SARS-CoV2 vaccine development and thereby help to mitigate a prolonged global public health crisis. A key criterion for the ethical acceptability of SARS-CoV2 HCS is that potential benefits outweigh risks. Although the assessment of risks and benefits is meant to be a standard part of research ethics review, systematic comparisons are particularly important in the context of SARS-CoV2 HCS in light of the significant po…Read more
  •  10
    Is the non-identity problem relevant to public health and policy? An online survey
    with Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, and Dominic Wilkinson
    BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1): 46. 2019.
    The non-identity problem arises when our actions in the present could change which people will exist in the future, for better or worse. Is it morally better to improve the lives of specific future people, as compared to changing which people exist for the better? Affecting the timing of fetuses being conceived is one case where present actions change the identity of future people. This is relevant to questions of public health policy, as exemplified in some responses to the Zika epidemic. There…Read more
  • Editorial
    Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4): 159-161. 2014.
  •  5
  •  22
    Focus on infectious disease
    Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4): 227-228. 2005.
  •  8
    Should practice and policy be revised to allow for risk-proportional payment to human challenge study participants?
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik
    Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12): 835-836. 2020.
    Human infection challenge studies provide illuminating case studies for several ongoing debates in research ethics, including those related to research risks and payment of participants. Grimwade et al 1 add to previous public engagement, qualitative evidence and philosophical literature on these topics.1–8 The authors advocate revision of research payment policy and practice based on their main finding that members of the public endorse ex ante payment of participants proportional to research-r…Read more
  • Editorial
    Monash Bioethics Review 32 (1-2): 1-2. 2014.
  • Neugenics: Genetically Informed Reproductive Decision Making
    Dissertation, University of California, San Diego. 2001.
    People are worried that advances in genetics will lead to a revival of eugenics. Such worries are often associated with eugenic practices carried out early in the 20th century---the forcible sterilization of feebleminded persons in the United States and the Nazi program of Racial Hygiene. A "new eugenics" involving prenatal genetic testing and the selective abortion of fetuses diagnosed with severe genetic disorders might, nonetheless, be acceptable. In chapter one I examine the history of eugen…Read more
  •  53
    Infectious Disease Ethics: Limiting Liberty in Contexts of Contagion
    with Angela R. McLean, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, and Julian Savulescu
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2): 149-152. 2009.
  •  1
    On the Dual Uses of Science and Ethics (edited book)
    with Brian Rappert
    Australian National University Press. 2013.
  •  33
    Freedom and moral enhancement
    Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (4): 215-216. 2014.
    This issue of Journal of Medical Ethics includes a pair of papers debating the implications of moral bioenhancement for human freedom–and, especially, the question of whether moral enhancement should potentially be compulsory. In earlier writings Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu argue that compulsory moral bioenhancement may be necessary to prevent against catastrophic harms that might result from immoral behaviour.1 In “Voluntary moral enhancement and the survival-at-any-cost bias” Vojin Rak…Read more
  •  16
    Specifying the duty to treat
    with Yen-Chang Chen
    American Journal of Bioethics 8 (8). 2008.
    No abstract
  •  11
    Eugenic abortion, moral uncertainty, and social consequences
    Monash Bioethics Review 20 (2): 26-42. 2001.
    The proliferation of prenatal genetic testing likely to follow from advances in genetic science invites reconsideration of the moral status of abortion. In this article I examine arguments surrounding the moral status of the fetus. I conclude that secular philosophy should ultimately admit that the moral status of the fetus is uncertain, and that this uncertainty itself makes abortion morally problematic. While this does not imply that abortion is always morally wrong or that it should be legall…Read more
  •  5
    From the Guest Editors
    Developing World Bioethics 4 (1). 2004.
  •  17
    Central to the argument of ‘Biodefense and the Production of Knowledge: Rethinking the Problem’ are claims that the vast majority of ethical debate about biodefense research to date has focused on the dual use problem, and the focus of ethical discussion of dual-use research has been on the need to strike ‘a proper balance of only two dominant values: biosecurity and “open science”’ —the idea being that ‘under current conditions other values can and ought to be ignored because the stakes are so …Read more
  •  13
    Ethics, health policy, and Zika: From emergency to global epidemic?
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik
    Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5): 343-348. 2018.
    Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation, with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues rais…Read more
  •  6
    Conflicting clinical duties
    Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (3): 213-214. 2015.
  • The dual-use dilemma-Reply
    Hastings Center Report 37 (5): 6-7. 2007.
  •  7
    Neugenics?
    Monash Bioethics Review 19 (4): 9-33. 2000.
    Many are worried that the Human Genome Project will lead to a revival of eugenics. In this essay I examine the troublesome history of the ‘old eugenics’ which included the Nazi program of ‘Racial Hygiene’ and the sterilization of the ‘feebleminded’ in the United States of America. A ‘new eugenics’, involving prenatal diagnosis and the selective abortion of fetuses likely to develop into severely disabled infants, on the other hand, is claimed by many to be morally acceptable. If this is correct,…Read more
  •  7
    Ethics, Economics, and Aids in Africa
    Developing World Bioethics 4 (1): 96-105. 2004.
    AIDS in the Twenty‐First Century: Disease and Globalization, by Tony Barnett and Alan Whiteside. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002. 416 pp. US$19.95 The Moral Economy of AIDS in South Africa, by Nicoli Nattrass. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 222 pp. US$30.00
  •  26
    Justice, infectious diseases and globalization
    with S. Benatar and G. Brock
    In S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.), Global Health and Global Health Ethics, Cambridge University Press. pp. 89--96. 2011.
  •  39
    Influenza Vaccination Strategies Should Target Children
    with Ben Bambery, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Alberto Giubilini, Andrew J. Pollard, and Julian Savulescu
    Public Health Ethics 11 (2): 221-234. 2018.
    Strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates have typically targeted healthcare professionals and individuals in various high-risk groups such as the elderly. We argue that they should focus on increasing vaccination rates in children. Because children suffer higher influenza incidence rates than any other demographic group, and are major drivers of seasonal influenza epidemics, we argue that influenza vaccination strategies that serve to increase uptake rates in children are likely to be …Read more