Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (IESA-CSIC)
  •  2
    Addressing organ shortage: An automatic organ procurement model as a proposal
    with Marina Morla-González, Clara Moya-Guillem, David Rodríguez-Arias, Íñigo de Miguel Beriain, and Iván Ortega-Deballon
    Clinical Ethics 147775092110114. forthcoming.
    Organ shortage constitutes an unsolved problem for every country that offers transplantation as a therapeutic option. Besides the largely implemented donation model and the eventually implemented market model, a theorized automatic organ procurement model has raised a rich debate in the legal, medical and bioethical community, since it could show a higher potential to solve organ shortage. In this paper, we study the main arguments for and against this model. We show how, in the light of empiric…Read more
  •  16
    How should automated vehicles react in emergency circumstances? Most research projects and scientific literature deal with this question from a moral perspective. In particular, it is customary to treat emergencies involving AVs as instances of moral dilemmas and to use the trolley problem as a framework to address such alleged dilemmas. Some critics have pointed out some shortcomings of this strategy and have urged to focus on mundane traffic situations instead of trolley cases involving AVs. B…Read more
  •  37
    Public knowledge and attitudes towards consent policies for organ donation in Europe. A systematic review
    with David Rodríguez-Arias, Janet Delgado-Rodríguez, Myfanwy Morgan, Mihaela Frunza, Gurch Randhawa, Jeantine Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Eline Schiks, Sabine Wöhlke, and Silke Schicktanz
    Transplantation Reviews 33 (1): 1-8. 2019.
    Background: Several countries have recently changed their model of consent for organ donation from opt-in to opt-out. We undertook a systematic review to determine public knowledge and attitudes towards these models in Europe. Methods: Six databases were explored between 1 January 2008 and 15 December 2017. We selected empirical studies addressing either knowledge or attitudes towards the systems of consent for deceased organ donation by lay people in Europe, including students. Study selection,…Read more
  •  89
    Finality, design and purpose have started to be excluded from the language of the natural sciences since the XVIIth century. Darwin succeeded in excluding them from his theory of evolution appealing to a blind and mechanical natural selection. Today, the most usual definitions for the concept of biological function take for granted that functions: 1) are not dependent on a goal; 2) are not dependent on observers, but only on nature; 3) are explicable in causal terms, either with reference to the…Read more
  •  18
    Families play an essential role in deceased organ procurement. As the person cannot directly communicate his or her wishes regarding donation, the family is often the only source of information regarding consent or refusal. We provide a systematic description and analysis of the different roles the family can play, and actions the family can take, in the organ procurement process across different jurisdictions and consent systems. First, families can inform or update healthcare professionals abo…Read more
  •  11
    Death Determination and Clinicians’ Epistemic Authority
    with David Rodríguez-Arias and Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho
    American Journal of Bioethics 20 (6): 44-47. 2020.
    Requiring family authorization for apnea testing subtracts health professionals control over death determination, a procedure that has traditionally been considered a matter of clinical expertise alone. In this commentary, we first provide evidence showing that health professionals’ (HPs) disposition to act on death determination without family’s prior consent could be much lower than that referred to by Berkowitz and Garrett (2020). We hypothesize that HPs may have reservations about their own …Read more
  •  414
    This dissertation is focused on teleology and functions in biology. More precisely, it focuses on the scientific legitimacy of teleofunctional attributions and explanations in biology. It belongs to a multi-faceted debate that can be traced back to at least the 1970s. One aspect of the debate concerns the naturalization of functions. Most authors try to reduce, translate or explain functions and teleology in terms of efficient causes so that they find their place in the framework of the natural …Read more
  •  55
    Should individuals choose their definition of death?
    Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9): 688-689. 2008.
    Alireza Bagheri supports a policy on organ procurement where individuals could choose their own definition of death between two or more socially accepted alternatives. First, we claim that such a policy, without any criterion to distinguish accepted from acceptable definitions, easily leads to the slippery slope that Bagheri tries to avoid. Second, we suggest that a public discussion about the circumstances under which the dead donor rule could be violated is more productive of social trust than…Read more
  •  56
    A comparative analysis of biomedical research ethics regulation systems in Europe and Latin America with regard to the protection of human subjects
    with E. Lamas, M. Ferrer, R. Salinas, A. Hevia, A. Bota, D. Feinholz, M. Fuchs, R. Schramm, J. -C. Tealdi, and S. Zorrilla
    Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12): 750-753. 2010.
    The European project European and Latin American Systems of Ethics Regulation of Biomedical Research Project (EULABOR) has carried out the first comparative analysis of ethics regulation systems for biomedical research in seven countries in Europe and Latin America, evaluating their roles in the protection of human subjects. We developed a conceptual and methodological framework defining ‘ethics regulation system for biomedical research’ as a set of actors, institutions, codes and laws involved …Read more
  •  10
    Is the boundary between the normal and the pathological real or fiction? Are health and disease just a matter of fact or are they value-laden? Here we present some examples of how alleged diseases can be invented and propagated by the industry (disease mongering) or by the methodology of medical science itself. We show that the boundary between health and disease is blurred and depends on individual and social representations, culture relative ways of categorising things and people, and by the s…Read more
  •  208
    Since 1968, the irreversible loss of functioning of the whole brain, called brain death, is assimilated to individual’s death. The almost universal acceptance of this neurological criterion of death had decisive consequences for the contemporary medicine, such as the withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in these patients and organ retrieval for transplantation. The new criterion was successfully accepted in part because the assimilation of brain death state to death was presented by medicine --a…Read more