•  12
    Beware of the Philosophical Expert
    Philosophy Today. forthcoming.
  •  4
    Would Relaxation of the Anti-doping Rule Lead to Red Queen Effects?
    with Bengt Kayser
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1-15. 2020.
    One of the claims sometimes advanced in favour of anti-doping is that allowing doping would lead to a uniform increase in performance in comparison to no doping. The idea is that if all athletes wo...
  •  7
    Why Mental Disorders Are Just Mental Dysfunctions (and Nothing More): Some Darwinian Arguments
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3): 338-346. 2008.
    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, "What is a mental disorder?". In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but …Read more
  •  3
    In this paper, we distinguish two different approaches to cultural evolution. One approach is meme-centered, the other organism-centered. We argue that in situations in which the meme- and organism-centered approaches are competing alternatives, the organism-centered approach is in many ways superior. Furthermore, the organism-centered approach can go a long way toward understanding the evolution of institutions. Although the organism-centered approach is preferable for a broad class of situatio…Read more
  •  3
    Commentary on Lesly Newson and Peter Richerson, Moral Beliefs about Homosexuality: Testing a Cultural Evolutionary Hypothesis
  •  3
    Sports, ethics, integrity and spirituality
    with Jan Tolleneer, An De Kock, and Paul Schotsmans
    status: published.
  •  2
    Darwinism and the cultural evolution of sports
    with Siegfried Dewitte
    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (1): 1-16. 2008.
    Evolutionary theory has gained some ground in the social sciences, but not without resistance. It must be said that at least some of the resistance on the part of social scientists is justified insofar as social and cultural phenomena such as sports are often much more complex than many evolutionary theorists seem to think. We propose in this paper an evolutionary approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character, thereby overcoming the traditional nature-culture dicho…Read more
  •  80
    Philosophy and the Biology of Male Homosexuality
    Philosophy Compass 10 (7): 479-488. 2015.
    This paper is a review of how biological as well as other scientific theories, concepts and findings have been used to answer philosophical questions regarding the nature of male homosexuality. We argue that while these sciences are certainly relevant for present philosophical debates, few of the different philosophical issues surrounding male homosexuality can be settled by science alone. In the first section, we introduce a number of various essentialist and constructivist views on (male) homo…Read more
  •  3
    Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history
    Journal of Sex Research 50 (3). 2013.
    This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal beha…Read more
  •  7418
    Ideological diversity, hostility, and discrimination in philosophy
    with Uwe Peters, Nathan Honeycutt, and Lee Jussim
    Philosophical Psychology 33 (4): 511-548. 2020.
    Members of the field of philosophy have, just as other people, political convictions or, as psychologists call them, ideologies. How are different ideologies distributed and perceived in the field? Using the familiar distinction between the political left and right, we surveyed an international sample of 794 subjects in philosophy. We found that survey participants clearly leaned left (75%), while right-leaning individuals (14%) and moderates (11%) were underrepresented. Moreover, and strikingly…Read more
  •  93
    Is de filosofie te links?
    Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 109 (1): 105-122. 2017.
    Ideological diversity has been on the research agenda in the social sciences for a couple of years. Yet in philosophy, the topic has not attracted much interest. This article tries to start filling this gap. We discuss a number of possible causes for the underrepresentation of right-wing and conservative philosophers in the academic profession. We also argue why this should be an important concern, not only morally, but also and primarily epistemically. Lastly, we explore whether the situation i…Read more
  •  6
    Mating games: cultural evolution and sexual selection
    with S. Dewitte
    Biology and Philosophy 22 (4): 475-491. 2007.
  •  27
    'Nature and I are Two': A Critical Examination of the Biophilia Hypothesis
    with Yannick Joye
    Environmental Values 20 (2). 2011.
    In 1984, Edward O. Wilson proposed the idea that natural selection has resulted in an adaptive love of life-forms and life—like processes ('biophilia') in humans. To date, the idea of biophilia has been viewed as an ultimate explanation of many conservation attitudes in humans. In this paper, we contend that environmental ethics has little to gain from the biophilia hypothesis. First, the notion is open to various and even conflicting interpretations. Second, the empirical findings that do seem …Read more
  •  20
    Why Darwinians Should Not Be Afraid of Mary Douglas--And Vice Versa: The Case of Disgust
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (4): 459-488. 2012.
    Evolutionary psychology and human sociobiology often reject the mere possibility of symbolic causality. Conversely, theories in which symbolic causality plays a central role tend to be both anti-nativist and anti-evolutionary. This article sketches how these apparent scientific rivals can be reconciled in the study of disgust. First, we argue that there are no good philosophical or evolutionary reasons to assume that symbolic causality is impossible. Then, we examine to what extent symbolic caus…Read more
  •  23
    Darwinism and the Cultural Evolution of Sports
    with Siegfried Dewitte
    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (1): 1-16. 2009.
  •  25
    Drift en ziekte. Over het waarom Van freuds antropologische wending
    Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (2): 325-352. 2002.
    Freud's anthropology is in fact little more than an amplified psychiatry. For Freud, the human being is in essence a sick animal. In this paper the author discusses why Freud made this so-called 'anthropological turn'. First it is shown that Freud wanted his psychoanalytic theory to be a 'Philosophy of Man'. Secondly it is argued that this can only be the case if the determinants of pathology, that psychoanalysis claimed to have discovered, are constitutive of human subjectivity. This means that…Read more
  •  19
    Alle gekheid in een hokje
    Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 72 (1): 7-39. 2010.
  •  44
    Amusing ourselves to death? Superstimuli and the evolutionary social sciences
    with Bart du Laing
    Philosophical Psychology 23 (6): 821-843. 2010.
    Some evolutionary psychologists claim that humans are good at creating superstimuli, and that many pleasure technologies are detrimental to our reproductive fitness. Most of the evolutionary psychological literature makes use of some version of Lorenz and Tinbergen’s largely embryonic conceptual framework to make sense of supernormal stimulation and bias exploitation in humans. However, the early ethological concept “superstimulus” was intimately connected to other erstwhile core ethological not…Read more
  •  16
    Goodwin, Piaget, and the Evolving Evolutionary Synthesis
    with Bart Du Laing
    Biological Theory 4 (2): 112-114. 2009.
  •  60
    Why mental disorders are just mental dysfunctions (and nothing more): Some Darwinian arguments
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3): 338-346. 2008.
    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, ‘what is a mental disorder?’. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted fu…Read more
  •  136
    At first sight, homosexuality has little to do with reproduction. Nevertheless, many neo-Darwinian theoreticians think that human homosexuality may have had a procreative value, since it enabled the close kin of homosexuals to have more viable offspring than individuals lacking the support of homosexual siblings. In this article, however, we will defend an alternative hypothesis - originally put forward by Freud in "A phylogenetic phantasy" - namely that homosexuality evolved as a means to stren…Read more
  •  44
    Maladapting Minds discusses a number of reasons why philosophers of psychiatry should take an interest in evolutionary explanations of mental disorders and, more generally, in evolutionary thinking. First of all, there is the nascent field of evolutionary psychiatry. Unlike other psychiatrists, evolutionary psychiatrists engage with ultimate, rather than proximate, questions about mental illnesses. Being a young and youthful new discipline, evolutionary psychiatry allows for a nice case study in…Read more
  •  16
    'Nature and I are Two': A Critical Examination of the Biophilia Hypothesis
    with Yannick Joye
    Environmental Values 20 (2): 189-215. 2011.
    In 1984, Edward O. Wilson proposed the idea that natural selection has resulted in an adaptive love of life-forms and life-like processes in humans. To date, the idea of biophilia has been viewed as an ultimate explanation of many conservation attitudes in humans. In this paper, we contend that environmental ethics has little to gain from the biophilia hypothesis. First, the notion is open to various and even conflicting interpretations. Second, the empirical findings that do seem to corroborate…Read more
  •  62
    Paving the Way for an Evolutionary Social Constructivism
    with Bart Du Laing
    Biological Theory 2 (4): 337-348. 2007.
    The idea has recently taken root that evolutionary theory and social constructivism are less antagonistic than most theorists thought, and we have even seen attempts at integrating constructivist and evolutionary approaches to human thought and behaviour. We argue in this article that although the projected integration is possible, indeed valuable, the existing attempts have tended to be vague or overly simplistic about the claims of social constructivist. We proceed by examining how to give mor…Read more
  •  14
    Sublimation is usually defined as a defense-mechanism that desexualizes the sexual instincts. This desexualization then results in socio-cultural activities and psychic health. That means that sublimation is a crucial concept for psychoanalytic thinking, because it seems to connect the Freudian metapsychology with both applied psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy. However, in this article I argue that within Freud's theory sublimation is an empty and redundant concept. It is a redundant con…Read more
  •  10
    Why mental disorders are just mental dysfunctions : some Darwinian arguments
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3): 338-346. 2008.
    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, 'what is a mental disorder?'. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted fu…Read more
  •  11
    Both the so-called high priests of atheism and the proponents of Intelligent Design argue that the Darwinian theory of evolution is more problematic for theism than any other scientific theory. Against the grain of most contemporary philosophers and theologians, I contend that their arguments are largely correct. Moreover, neo-Darwinism is especially threatening the soft theism or deism, defended by Darwin and several of the most prominent Darwinian theorists . For the proponents of ID, this imp…Read more
  •  142
    Why We Essentialize Mental Disorders
    with Pieter R. Adriaens
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (2): 107-127. 2013.
    Essentialism is one of the most pervasive problems in mental health research. Many psychiatrists still hold the view that their nosologies will enable them, sooner or later, to carve nature at its joints and to identify and chart the essence of mental disorders. Moreover, according to recent research in social psychology, some laypeople tend to think along similar essentialist lines. The main aim of this article is to highlight a number of processes that possibly explain the persistent presence …Read more