
45Howmany numbers, such as 2 and 1000, relate or are capable of expressing the size of a group or set. Both Cantor and Frege analyzed howmany number in terms of onetoone correspondence between two sets. That is to say, one arrived at numbers by either abstracting from the concept of correspondence, in the case of Cantor, or by using it to provide an outandout definition, in the case of Frege.

234The solution to the Sorites Paradox is discussed.

584It might seem that three of Godel’s results  the Completeness and the First and Second Incompleteness Theorems  assume so little that they are reasonably indisputable. A version of the Completeness Theorem, for instance, can be proven in RCA0, which is the weakest system studied extensively in Simpson’s encyclopaedic Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic. And it often seems that the minimum requirements for a system just to express the Incompleteness Theorems are sufficient to prove them. Howe…Read more

174Parallel machinesMinds and Machines 7 (4): 543551. 1997.Because it is timedependent, parallel computation is fundamentally different from sequential computation. Parallel programs are nondeterministic and are not effective procedures. Given the brain operates in parallel, this casts doubt on AI's attempt to make sequential computers intelligent

280Secondorder Peano Arithmetic minus the Successor Axiom is developed from first principles through Quadratic Reciprocity and a proof of selfconsistency. This paper combines 4 other papers of the author in a selfcontained exposition

562Using an axiomatization of secondorder arithmetic (essentially secondorder Peano Arithmetic without the Successor Axiom), arithmetic's basic operations are defined and its fundamental laws, up to unique prime factorization, are proven. Two manners of expressing a system's consistency are presented  the "Godel" consistency, where a wff is represented by a natural number, and the "real" consistency, where a wff is represented as a secondorder sequence, which is a stronger notion. It is shown t…Read more

24In a short, technical note, the system of arithmetic, F, introduced in Systems for a Foundation of Arithmetic and "True" Arithmetic Can Prove Its Own Consistency and Proving Quadratic Reciprocity, is demonstrated to be equivalent to a subtheory of Peano Arithmetic; the subtheory is missing, most notably, the Successor Axiom

121A solution to the paradoxes has two sides: the philosophical and the technical. The paradoxes are, first and foremost, a philosophical problem. A philosophical solution must pinpoint the exact step where the reasoning that leads to contradiction is fallacious, and then explain why it is so.

202Neologicism uses definitions and Hume's Principle to derive arithmetic in secondorder logic. This paper investigates how much arithmetic can be derived using definitions alone, without any additional principle such as Hume's.

21The system of arithmetic considered in Consistency, which is essentially secondorder Peano Arithmetic without the Successor Axiom, is used to prove more theorems of arithmetic, up to Quadratic Reciprocity.

29On the one hand, firstorder theories are able to assert the existence of objects. For instance, ZF set theory asserts the existence of objects called the power set, while Peano Arithmetic asserts the existence of zero. On the other hand, a firstorder theory may or not be consistent: it is if and only if no contradiction is a theorem. Let us ask, What is the connection between consistency and existence?

217I begin with a personal confession. Philosophical discussions of existence have always bored me. When they occur, my eyes glaze over and my attention falters. Basically ontological questions often seem best decided by banging on the tablerocks exist, fairies do not. Argument can appear longwinded and miss the point. Sometimes a quick distinction resolves any apparent difficulty. Does a falling tree in an earless forest make noise, ie does the noise exist? Well, if noise means that an ear must…Read more

525General Arithmetic is the theory consisting of induction on a successor function. Normal arithmetic, say in the system called Peano Arithmetic, makes certain additional demands on the successor function. First, that it be total. Secondly, that it be onetoone. And thirdly, that there be a first element which is not in its image. General Arithmetic abandons all of these further assumptions, yet is still able to prove many meaningful arithmetic truths, such as, most basically, Commutativity and A…Read more

638For those who have understood the solution to the Liarʼs Paradox and the Paradoxes of Predication, presented in A Comprehensive Solution to the Paradoxes and The Solution to the Liarʼs Paradox1, it will come as no surprise how the Berry Paradox should be solved. Nonetheless, the solution will be presented here in a short note, for completenessʼ sake.

402A new secondorder axiomatization of arithmetic, with Frege's definition of successor replaced, is presented and compared to other systems in the field of Frege Arithmetic. The key in proving the Peano Axioms turns out to be a proposition about infinity, which a reduced subset of the axioms proves

855I recently had the occasion to reread Naming and Necessity by Saul Kripke. NaN struck me this time, as it always has, as breathtakingly clear and lucid. It also struck me this time, as it always has, as wrongheaded in several major ways, both in its methodology and its content. Herein is a brief explanation why.

413Herein is presented a natural firstorder arithmetic system which can prove its own consistency, both in the weaker Godelian sense using traditional Godel numbering and, more importantly, in a more robust and direct sense; yet it is strong enough to prove many arithmetic theorems, including the Euclidean Algorithm, Quadratic Reciprocity, and Bertrand’s Postulate.

717A solution to the Liar must do two things. First, it should say exactly which step in the Liar reasoning  the reasoning which leads to a contradiction  is invalid. Secondly, it should explains why this step is invalid.

576Bertand's Postulate is proved in Peano Arithmetic minus the Successor Axiom.

24As it is currently used, "foundations of arithmetic" can be a misleading expression. It is not always, as the name might indicate, being used as a plural term meaning X = {x : x is a foundation of arithmetic}. Instead it has come to stand for a philosophicological domain of knowledge, concerned with axiom systems, structures, and analyses of arithmetic concepts. It is a bit as if "rock" had come to mean "geology." The conflation of subject matter and its study is a serious one, because in the e…Read more

376The system called F is essentially a subtheory of Frege Arithmetic without the ad infinitum assumption that there is always a next number. In a series of papers (Systems for a Foundation of Arithmetic, True” Arithmetic Can Prove Its Own Consistency and Proving Quadratic Reciprocity) it was shown that F proves a large number of basic arithmetic truths, such as the Euclidean Algorithm, Unique Prime Factorization (i.e. the Fundamental Law of Arithmetic), and Quadratic Reciprocity, indeed a sizable…Read more

156In "The Nature and Meaning of Numbers," Dedekind produces an original, quite remarkable proof for the holy grail in the foundations of elementary arithmetic, that there are an infinite number of things. It goes like this. [p, 64 in the Dover edition.] Consider the set S of things which can be objects of my thought. Define the function phi(s), which maps an element s of S to the thought that s can be an object of my thought. Then phi is evidently onetoone, and the image of phi is contained in S…Read more

684These notes are meant to continue from the paper on Consistency, in proving numbertheoretic theorems from the secondorder arithmetical system called FFFF. Its ultimate target is Quadratic Reciprocity, although it introduces and proves some facts about the least common multiple at the start.