•  1
    Putting Value into Art
    The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1 177-182. 1998.
    The attempt to base a standard for assessing the value of works of art upon sentiment was famously made by David Hume in his essay "Of the Standard of Taste." Hume's attempt is generally regarded as fundamentally important in the project of explaining the nature of value judgements in the arts by means of an empirical, rather than a priori, relation. Recently, Hume's argument has been strongly criticized by Malcolm Budd in his book Values of Art. Budd contends that Hume utterly fails to show how…Read more
  •  54
    In their recent book, Is Inequality Bad for Our Health?, Daniels, Kennedy, and Kawachi claim that to “act justly in health policy, we must have knowledge about the causal pathways through which socioeconomic (and other) inequalities work to produce differential health outcomes.” One of the central problems with this approach is its dependency on “knowledge about the causal pathways.” A widely held belief is that the randomized clinical trial (RCT) is, and ought to be the “gold standard” of evalu…Read more
  •  8
    The nature of health care, a multifaceted system of reimbursements, subsidies, levels of care, and trade-offs between economics, values and social goods, makes it both a problematic area of policy and critical to the well-being of society. In the United States, provision of health care is not a right as in some countries, but occurs as a function of a complex set of cross-subsidized mechanisms that, according to some analysts, exclude from coverage those who may be in the most need of it. Accord…Read more
  •  75
    Virtual Communities
    Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 14 (3): 237-251. 2010.
    The Internet, as it exists today, is an outgrowth of the late 1960’s Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. During the 1980’s, the National Science Foundation established a high-speed, high-capacity network called NSFnet connecting many universities and government agencies. Finally, with the creation of the World Wide Web and the development and diffusion of inexpensive, reliable and easy to use public Internet access, electronic information technologies connect an increasingly large portion…Read more
  • Michael Polanyi's search for truth
    with John V. Apczynski, Robert B. Glassman, Steven Reiss, Amos Yong, Jacqueline R. Cameron, Rebecca Sachs Norris, and Holmes Rolston Iii
    Zygon. forthcoming.
  •  46
    “Spurious Correlations and Causal Inferences”
    Erkenntnis 78 (3): 699-712. 2013.
    The failure to recognize a correlation as spurious can lead people to adopt strategies to bring about a specific outcome that manipulate something other than a cause of the outcome. However, in a 2008 paper appearing in the journal Analysis, Bert Leuridan, Erik Weber and Maarten Van Dyck suggest that knowledge of spurious correlations can, at least sometimes, justify adopting a strategy aiming at bringing about some change. This claim is surprising and, if true, throws into question the claim of…Read more
  •  33
    The nature of health care, a multifaceted system of reimbursements, subsidies, levels of care, and trade-offs between economics, values and social goods, makes it both a problematic area of policy and critical to the well-being of society. In the United States, provision of health care is not a right as in some countries, but occurs as a function of a complex set of cross-subsidized mechanisms that, according to some analysts, exclude from coverage those who may be in the most need of it. Accord…Read more
  •  73
    The social epidemiologic concept of fundamental cause
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (6): 465-485. 2007.
    The goal of research in social epidemiology is not simply conceptual clarification or theoretical understanding, but more importantly it is to contribute to, and enhance the health of populations (and so, too, the people who constitute those populations). Undoubtedly, understanding how various individual risk factors such as smoking and obesity affect the health of people does contribute to this goal. However, what is distinctive of much on-going work in social epidemiology is the view that anal…Read more
  •  26
    Empirical Justification
    Review of Metaphysics 40 (4): 787-789. 1987.
    This book is concerned with discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for a person's being justified in believing propositions about the empirical world and for propositions about the empirical world being justified for a person. Within this context, the problem that serves as the focus for the book is "the epistemic regress problem." Briefly, the problem starts with the assumption that a person S is justified in believing that a proposition P1 is true because S is justified in believi…Read more
  •  30
    Proof and Demonstration: Hume’s Account of the Causal Relation
    International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1): 23-37. 2008.
    On the standard reading of Hume, the belief that the necessity associated with the causal relation is “an entirely mind-independent phenomenon” in the world isunjustified. For example, Jonathan Bennett writes that necessary connections of the sort that Hume allows are not “relations which hold objectively between the ‘objects’ or events which we take to be causally related.” Similarly, Barry Stroud writes that, according to Hume, we believe falsely “that necessity is something that ‘resides’ in …Read more
  •  18
    Scapegoating Under Scrutiny
    with Jill A. Brown and Ann C. Buchholtz
    Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19 383-394. 2008.
    This paper develops and tests a model of fingerpointing behaviors that board members experience because of regulatory reforms. We present the partial results of a large study of 138 board members on 54 publicly traded boards in the United States. We found that recent governance reforms that mandate increased accountability of board members are associated with less board cohesion and thatlower board cohesion is associated with fingerpointing behaviors. These findings suggest that the stages of in…Read more
  •  68
    The Value of Genetic Fallacies
    Informal Logic 30 (1): 1-33. 2010.
    Since at least the 1938 publication of Hans Reichenbach’s Experience and Predication , there has been widespread agreement that, when discussing the beliefs that people have, it is important to distinguish contexts of discovery and contexts of justification. Traditionally, when one conflates the two contexts, the result is a “genetic fallacy”. This paper examines genealogical critiques and addresses the question of whether such critiques are fallacious and, if so, whether this vitiates their use…Read more
  • Issues in Workplace Accommodations for People with Disabilities
    with Paul Baker and Nathan Moon
    Philosophy for Business 67. 2011.
  •  37
    Value Congruence and Charismatic Leadership in CEO–Top Manager Relationships: An Empirical Investigation (review)
    with Sefa Hayibor, Bradley R. Agle, Greg J. Sears, and Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld
    Journal of Business Ethics 102 (2): 237-254. 2011.
    Although charismatic leadership theorists have long argued that leader–follower value congruence plays a central role in the development of charismatic relationships, few studies have tested this proposition. Using data from two studies involving a total of 329 CEOs and 1807 members of their top management teams, we tested the hypothesis that value congruence between leaders and their followers is empirically linked to follower perceptions of the charisma of their leader. Consistent with a relat…Read more
  •  61
    Necessary Health Care and Basic Needs: Health Insurance Plans and Essential Benefits (review)
    with Pamela Jo Johnson
    Health Care Analysis 21 (4): 355-371. 2013.
    According to HealthCare.gov, by improving access to quality health for all Americans, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will reduce disparities in health insurance coverage. One way this will happen under the provisions of the ACA is by creating a new health insurance marketplace (a health insurance exchange) by 2014 in which “all people will have a choice for quality, affordable health insurance even if a job loss, job switch, move or illness occurs”. This does not mean that everyone will have what…Read more
  •  8
    The concept of underinsurance: A general typology
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (5). 2006.
    In a 2002 speech, Mark McClellan, a member of the Council of Economic Advisors at the White House, said that "[I]n the president's vision, all Americans should have access to high-quality and affordable healthcare." However, many healthcare researchers believe that a growing number of Americans are underinsured. Because any characterization of underinsurance will refer to the value judgments of people about what counts as "adequate" and "inadequate" healthcare, the goal of characterizing and mea…Read more
  •  23
    Causal criteria and the problem of complex causation
    Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3): 333-343. 2009.
    Nancy Cartwright begins her recent book, Hunting Causes and Using Them, by noting that while a few years ago real causal claims were in dispute, nowadays “causality is back, and with a vengeance.” In the case of the social sciences, Keith Morrison writes that “Social science asks ‘why?’. Detecting causality or its corollary—prediction—is the jewel in the crown of social science research.” With respect to the health sciences, Judea Pearl writes that the “research questions that motivate most stud…Read more