•  35
    Ordinary people think free will is a lack of constraint, not the presence of a soul
    with Roy F. Baumeister and Alfred R. Mele
    Consciousness and Cognition 60 133-151. 2018.
    Four experiments supported the hypothesis that ordinary people understand free will as meaning unconstrained choice, not having a soul. People consistently rated free will as being high unless reduced by internal constraints (i.e., things that impaired people’s mental abilities to make choices) or external constraints (i.e., situations that hampered people’s abilities to choose and act as they desired). Scientific paradigms that have been argued to disprove free will were seen as reducing, but u…Read more
  •  11
    Self-Organization as Conceptual Key to Understanding Free Will
    with Roy F. Baumeister
    American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (3): 44-46. 2011.
  •  8
    Unjustified side effects were strongly intended: Taboo tradeoffs and the side-effect effect
    with Roy Baumeister
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 68 83-92. 2017.
    The side-effect effect is the seemingly irrational tendency for people to say harmful side effects were more intentional than helpful side effects of the same action. But the tendency may not be irrational. According to the Tradeoffs Justification Model, judgments of a person's intentions to cause harm depend on how that person decided to act, and on whether the reasons for acting justified causing the harmful consequences. Across three experiments (N = 660), unjustified harms were viewed as mor…Read more
  •  1
    The science of consciousness must include its more advanced forms
    with E. J. Masicampo and Roy F. Baumeister
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39. 2016.