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    When aggression is conceptualised in terms of a cost-benefit ratio, sex differences are best understood by a consideration of female costs as well as male benefits. Benefits must be extremely high to outweigh the greater costs borne by females, and circumstances where this occurs are discussed. Achievement of dominance is not such a circumstance and evidence bearing upon women's egalitarian relationships is reviewed. Attempts to explain sex differences in terms of sexual dimorphism, sex-of-targe…Read more
  •  13
    Maternal Competition in Women
    with Catherine Linney and Laurel Korologou-Linden
    Human Nature. forthcoming.
  •  9
    Case Study: "The Child That Might Be Born..."
    with Louise M. Terry
    Hastings Center Report 32 (3): 11. 2002.
  •  38
    Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2): 203-214. 1999.
    Females' tendency to place a high value on protecting their own lives enhanced their reproductive success in the environment of evolutionary adaptation because infant survival depended more upon maternal than on paternal care and defence. The evolved mechanism by which the costs of aggression (and other forms of risk taking) are weighted more heavily for females may be a lower threshold for fear in situations which pose a direct threat of bodily injury. Females' concern with personal survival al…Read more
  •  39
    Sociopathy or hyper-masculinity?
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3): 548-549. 1995.
    Definitional slippage threatens to equate secondary sociopathy with mere criminality and leaves the status of noncriminal sociopaths ambiguous. Primary sociopathy appears to show more environmental contingency than would be implied by a strong genetic trait approach. A reinterpretation in terms of hypermasculinity and hypofemininity is compatible with the data
  •  14
    Representations, repertoires and power: Mother-child conflict
    Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 25 (1). 1995.
  •  13