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    Shadows of complexity: what biological networks reveal about epistasis and pleiotropy
    with Folkert W. Asselbergs, Scott M. Williams, and Jason H. Moore
    Bioessays 31 (2): 220-227. 2009.
    Pleiotropy, in which one mutation causes multiple phenotypes, has traditionally been seen as a deviation from the conventional observation in which one gene affects one phenotype. Epistasis, or gene–gene interaction, has also been treated as an exception to the Mendelian one gene–one phenotype paradigm. This simplified perspective belies the pervasive complexity of biology and hinders progress toward a deeper understanding of biological systems. We assert that epistasis and pleiotropy are not is…Read more