•  1139
    Representing Concepts in Formal Ontologies: Compositionality vs. Typicality Effects"
    with Marcello Frixione
    Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (4): 391-414. 2012.
    The problem of concept representation is relevant for many sub-fields of cognitive research, including psychology and philosophy, as well as artificial intelligence. In particular, in recent years it has received a great deal of attention within the field of knowledge representation, due to its relevance for both knowledge engineering as well as ontology-based technologies. However, the notion of a concept itself turns out to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, one of the causes …Read more
  •  603
    The Knowledge Level in Cognitive Architectures: Current Limitations and Possible Developments
    with Christian Lebiere and Alessandro Oltramari
    Cognitive Systems Research 1-42. 2017.
    In this paper we identify and characterize an analysis of two problematic aspects affecting the representational level of cognitive architectures (CAs), namely: the limited size and the homogeneous typology of the encoded and processed knowledge. We argue that such aspects may constitute not only a technological problem that, in our opinion, should be addressed in order to build articial agents able to exhibit intelligent behaviours in general scenarios, but also an epistemological one, since th…Read more
  •  578
    Dealing with Concepts: from Cognitive Psychology to Knowledge Representation
    with Marcello Frixione
    Frontiers of Psychological and Behevioural Science 2 (3): 96-106. 2013.
    Concept representation is still an open problem in the field of ontology engineering and, more generally, of knowledge representation. In particular, the issue of representing “non classical” concepts, i.e. concepts that cannot be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, remains unresolved. In this paper we review empirical evidence from cognitive psychology, according to which concept representation is not a unitary phenomenon. On this basis, we sketch some proposals for concept…Read more
  •  471
    A Computational Framework for Concept Representation in Cognitive Systems and Architectures: Concepts as Heterogeneous Proxytypes
    Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, Boston, MIT, Pocedia Computer Science, Elsevier 1-9. 2014.
    In this paper a possible general framework for the representation of concepts in cognitive artificial systems and cognitive architectures is proposed. The framework is inspired by the so called proxytype theory of concepts and combines it with the heterogeneity approach to concept representations, according to which concepts do not constitute a unitary phenomenon. The contribution of the paper is twofold: on one hand, it aims at providing a novel theoretical hypothesis for the debate about conce…Read more
  •  395
    From human to artificial cognition and back: New perspectives on cognitively inspired AI systems
    with Daniele Radicioni
    Cognitive Systems Research 39 (c): 1-3. 2016.
    We overview the main historical and technological elements characterising the rise, the fall and the recent renaissance of the cognitive approaches to Artificial Intelligence and provide some insights and suggestions about the future directions and challenges that, in our opinion, this discipline needs to face in the next years.
  •  356
    In the last decade Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has started to focus attention on forms of persuasive interaction where computer technologies have the goal of changing users behavior and attitudes according to a predefined direction. In this work, we hypothesize a strong connection between logical fallacies (forms of reasoning which are logically invalid but cognitively effective) and some common persuasion strategies adopted within web technologies. With the aim of empirically evaluating ou…Read more
  •  338
    Dual PECCS: A Cognitive System for Conceptual Representation and Categorization
    with Daniele Radicioni and Valentina Rho
    Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 29 (2): 433-452. 2017.
    In this article we present an advanced version of Dual-PECCS, a cognitively-inspired knowledge representation and reasoning system aimed at extending the capabilities of artificial systems in conceptual categorization tasks. It combines different sorts of common-sense categorization (prototypical and exemplars-based categorization) with standard monotonic categorization procedures. These different types of inferential procedures are reconciled according to the tenets coming from the dual process…Read more
  •  306
    Conceptual Spaces for Cognitive Architectures: A Lingua Franca for Different Levels of Representation
    with Antonio Chella and Marcello Frixione
    Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 19 1-9. 2017.
    During the last decades, many cognitive architectures (CAs) have been realized adopting different assumptions about the organization and the representation of their knowledge level. Some of them (e.g. SOAR [35]) adopt a classical symbolic approach, some (e.g. LEABRA[ 48]) are based on a purely connectionist model, while others (e.g. CLARION [59]) adopt a hybrid approach combining connectionist and symbolic representational levels. Additionally, some attempts (e.g. biSOAR) trying to extend the re…Read more
  •  266
    Concepts, Perception and the Dual Process Theories of Mind
    with Marcello Frixione
    The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 9. 2014.
    In this article we argue that the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception in cognitive science is blurred by the fact that the very notion of concept is rather confused. Since it is not always clear exactly what concepts are, it is not easy to say, for example, whether and in what measure concept possession involves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations, whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representations, and so on. As a paradigmatic e…Read more
  •  238
    The research in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has nowadays extended its attention to the study of persuasive technologies. Following this line of research, in this paper we focus on websites and mobile applications in the e-commerce domain. In particular, we take them as an evident example of persuasive technologies. Starting from the hypothesis that there is a strong connection between logical fallacies, i.e., forms of reasoning which are logically invalid but psychologically persuasive, and…Read more
  •  226
    The benefits of prototypes: The case of medical concepts
    Reti, Saperi E Linguaggi, The Italian Journal of Cognitive Sciences, 2017 3. 2017.
    In the present paper, we shall discuss the notion of prototype and show its benefits. First, we shall argue that the prototypes of common-sense concepts are necessary for making prompt and reliable categorisations and inferences. However, the features constituting the prototype of a particular concept are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for determining category membership; in this sense, the prototype might lead to conclusions regarded as wrong from a theoretical perspective. That be…Read more
  •  212
    Ontologies, Mental Disorders and Prototypes
    with Maria Cristina Amoretti, Marcello Frixione, and Greta Adamo
    In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence, Springer Verlag. 2019.
    As it emerged from philosophical analyses and cognitive research, most concepts exhibit typicality effects, and resist to the efforts of defining them in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This holds also in the case of many medical concepts. This is a problem for the design of computer science ontologies, since knowledge representation formalisms commonly adopted in this field do not allow for the representation of concepts in terms of typical traits. However, the need of representin…Read more
  •  181
    This article addresses an open problem in the area of cognitive systems and architectures: namely the problem of handling (in terms of processing and reasoning capabilities) complex knowledge structures that can be at least plausibly comparable, both in terms of size and of typology of the encoded information, to the knowledge that humans process daily for executing everyday activities. Handling a huge amount of knowledge, and selectively retrieve it according to the needs emerging in different …Read more
  •  160
    Ontologies, Disorders and Prototypes
    with Cristina Amoretti, Marcello Frixione, and Greta Adamo
    As it emerged from philosophical analyses and cognitive research, most concepts exhibit typicality effects, and resist to the efforts of defining them in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This holds also in the case of many medical concepts. This is a problem for the design of computer science ontologies, since knowledge representation formalisms commonly adopted in this field (such as, in the first place, the Web Ontology Language - OWL) do not allow for the representation of concep…Read more
  •  153
    Questo contributo si propone di fornire uno spunto di riflessione, e una breve panoramica storica, sul ruolo che le scienze cognitive hanno giocato, e possono ancora giocare, nello sviluppo dei sistemi intelligenti di nuova generazione. Illustra, inoltre, le attività recenti che l’AISC (Associazione Italiana di Scienze Cognitive, di cui gli autori sono attualmente Vice-Presidente e Presidente) sta portando avanti per lo sviluppo di linee di ricerca nell’ambito dei sistemi artificiali di inspiraz…Read more
  •  150
    We propose a nonmonotonic Description Logic of typicality able to account for the phenomenon of combining prototypical concepts, an open problem in the fields of AI and cognitive modelling. Our logic extends the logic of typicality ALC + TR, based on the notion of rational closure, by inclusions p :: T(C) v D (“we have probability p that typical Cs are Ds”), coming from the distributed semantics of probabilistic Description Logics. Additionally, it embeds a set of cognitive heuristics for concep…Read more
  •  149
    The paper introduces an extension of the proposal according to which conceptual representations in cognitive agents should be intended as heterogeneous proxytypes. The main contribution of this paper is in that it details how to reconcile, under a heterogeneous representational perspective, different theories of typicality about conceptual representation and reasoning. In particular, it provides a novel theoretical hypothesis - as well as a novel categorization algorithm called DELTA - showing h…Read more
  •  140
    Higher-level Knowledge, Rational and Social Levels Constraints of the Common Model of the Mind
    with William G. Kennedy, Christian Lebiere, Oscar Romero, Niels Taatgen, and Robert West
    Procedia Computer Science. forthcoming.
    In his famous 1982 paper, Allen Newell [22, 23] introduced the notion of knowledge level to indicate a level of analysis, and prediction, of the rational behavior of a cognitive articial agent. This analysis concerns the investigation about the availability of the agent knowledge, in order to pursue its own goals, and is based on the so-called Rationality Principle (an assumption according to which "an agent will use the knowledge it has of its environment to achieve its goals" [22, p. 17]. By u…Read more
  •  124
    Questo lavoro propone un confronto tra diversi strumenti utilizzabili per modellare la conoscenza di dominio in ambito didattico: le mappa concettuali, Novak e Cañas (2006), (uno strumento tradizionalmente utilizzato nelle scuole) e le ontologie computazionali (dei sistemi formali di modellazione concettuale, attualmente molto usati nei sistemi di intelligenza artificiale per le loro capacità di “ragionamento automatico”, si veda Guarino, (1995)). Nello specifico, questo articolo presenta il ris…Read more
  •  107
    Bounded Rationality and Heuristics in Humans and in Artificial Cognitive Systems
    Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho 1 (4): 1-21. 2019.
    In this paper I will present an analysis of the impact that the notion of “bounded rationality”, introduced by Herbert Simon in his book “Administrative Behavior”, produced in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In particular, by focusing on the field of Automated Decision Making (ADM), I will show how the introduction of the cognitive dimension into the study of choice of a rational (natural) agent, indirectly determined - in the AI field - the development of a line of research aiming at…Read more
  •  81
    Endowing artificial systems with explanatory capacities about the reasons guiding their decisions, represents a crucial challenge and research objective in the current fields of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Computational Cognitive Science [Langley et al., 2017]. Current mainstream AI systems, in fact, despite the enormous progresses reached in specific tasks, mostly fail to provide a transparent account of the reasons determining their behavior (both in cases of a successful or unsuccessful…Read more
  •  73
    Computational Models (of Narrative) for Literary Studies
    Semicerchio, Rivista di Poesia Comparata 2 (LIII): 38-44. 2015.
    In the last decades a growing body of literature in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cognitive Science (CS) has approached the problem of narrative understanding by means of computational systems. Narrative, in fact, is an ubiquitous element in our everyday activity and the ability to generate and understand stories, and their structures, is a crucial cue of our intelligence. However, despite the fact that - from an historical standpoint - narrative (and narrative structures) have been an import…Read more
  •  71
    A Description Logic Framework for Commonsense Conceptual Combination Integrating Typicality, Probabilities and Cognitive Heuristics
    with Gian Luca Pozzato
    Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 1-39. 2019.
    We propose a nonmonotonic Description Logic of typicality able to account for the phenomenon of the combination of prototypical concepts. The proposed logic relies on the logic of typicality ALC + TR, whose semantics is based on the notion of rational closure, as well as on the distributed semantics of probabilistic Description Logics, and is equipped with a cognitive heuristic used by humans for concept composition. We first extend the logic of typicality ALC + TR by typicality inclusions of th…Read more
  •  62
    Nel campo delle scienze cognitive molti oggi condividono l’ipotesi che siano necessari differenti tipi di rappresentazioni per modellare i sistemi cognitivi sia naturali, sia artificiali. Si considerino le rappresentazioni basate su reti neurali, i formalismi simbolici e rappresentazioni analogiche quali rappresentazioni diagrammatiche o modelli mentali. Tutti questi metodi hanno successo nello spiegare e modellare alcune classi di fenomeni cognitivi, ma nessuno è in grado di rendere conto di tu…Read more
  •  44
    Combining typical knowledge to generate novel concepts is an important creative trait of human cognition. Dealing with such ability requires, from an AI perspective, the harmonization of two conflicting requirements that are hardly accommodated in symbolic systems: the need of a syntactic compositionality (typical of logical systems) and that one concerning the exhibition of typicality effects (see Frixione and Lieto, 2012). In this work we provide a logical framework able to account for this ty…Read more
  •  38
    In questo contributo descriviamo un sistema di creatività computazionale in grado di generare automaticamente nuovi concetti utilizzando una logica descrittiva non monotòna che integra tre ingredienti principali: una logica descrittiva della tipicalità, una estensione probabilistica basata sulla semantica distribuita nota come DISPONTE, e una euristica di ispirazione cognitiva per la combinazione di più concetti. Una delle applicazioni principali del sistema riguarda il campo della creatività co…Read more
  •  37
    Non classical concept representation and reasoning in formal ontologies
    Dissertation, Università degli Studi di Salerno. 2012.
    Formal ontologies are nowadays widely considered a standard tool for knowledge representation and reasoning in the Semantic Web. In this context, they are expected to play an important role in helping automated processes to access information. Namely: they are expected to provide a formal structure able to explicate the relationships between different concepts/terms, thus allowing intelligent agents to interpret, correctly, the semantics of the web resources improving the performances of the sea…Read more
  •  35
    A Non Monotonic Reasoning framework for Goal-Oriented Knowledge Adaptation
    with Federico Perrone, Gian Luca Pozzato, and Eleonora Chiodino
    In Paglieri (ed.), Proceedings of AISC 2019, Università Degli Studi Di Roma Tre. pp. 12-14. 2019.
    In this paper we present a framework for the dynamic and automatic generation of novel knowledge obtained through a process of commonsense reasoning based on typicality-based concept combination. We exploit a recently introduced extension of a Description Logic of typicality able to combine prototypical descriptions of concepts in order to generate new prototypical concepts and deal with problem like the PET FISH (Osherson and Smith, 1981; Lieto & Pozzato, 2019). Intuitively, in the context of o…Read more