•  1151
    The Aesthetic Field develops an account of aesthetic experience that distinguishes four mutually interacting factors: the creative factor represented primarily by the artist; the appreciative one by the viewer, listener, or reader; the objective factor by the art object, which is the focus of the experience; and the performative by the activator of the aesthetic occurrence. Each of these factors both affects all the others and is in turn influenced by them, so none can be adequately considered…Read more
  •  507
    Experience and theory in aesthetics
    In Michael H. Mitias (ed.), Possibility of the Aesthetic Experience, Distributors For the U.s. and Canada, Kluwer Academic. pp. 91--106. 1986.
    From the earliest times art has been integral to human culture. Both fascinated and perplexed by the arts, people have tried, since the age of classical Greece, to understand how they work and what they mean. Philosophers wondered at first about the nature of art: what it is and how it relates to the cosmos. They puzzled over how art objects are created, and extolled human skills that seem at times godlike in their powers. But perhaps the central question for such philosophers as Plato and Arist…Read more
  •  301
    Reconsidering Scenic Beauty
    Environmental Values 19 (3). 2010.
    Attempts to justify the objectivity and universality of aesthetic judgment have traditionally rested on unsupported assumptions or mere assertion. This paper offers a fresh consideration of the problem of judgments of taste. It suggests that the problem of securing universal agreement is false and therefore insoluble since it imposes an inappropriate logical criterion on the extent of agreement, which is irrevocably empirical. The variability of judgments of taste actually forms a subject ripe f…Read more
  •  234
    The sensuous and the sensual in aesthetics
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 23 (2): 185-192. 1964.
  •  226
    The Critical Aesthetics of Disney World
    Journal of Applied Philosophy 11 (2): 171-180. 1994.
    It might seem strange to propose an aesthetic consideration of the theme park, that artificial bloom in the garden of popular culture.1 The aesthetic is often considered a minority interest in the modern world, yet it offers a distinctive perspective, even on an activity that has mass appeal, and can provide insights that would otherwise remain undiscovered. Aesthetic description and interpretation can illuminate the theme park in many directions: as architecture, design, theater, landscape arch…Read more
  •  211
    The persistence of dogma in aesthetics
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 52 (2): 237-239. 1994.
    By the close of the eighteenth century, many features of Western intellectual history had become incorporated into a coherent body of aesthetic doctrine that soon acquired the standing of tradition. "The three dogmas of aesthetics" is Allen Carlson's fitting designation of the main principles by which I have characterized this theory: that "art consists primarily of objects," that "these objects possess a special status," and that "they must be regarded in a unique way." Held against the practic…Read more
  •  192
    The Art in Knowing a Landscape
    Diogenes 59 (1-2): 52-62. 2012.
    What I should like to explore here is the experience of landscape both through the arts and as an art, an art of environmental appreciation. A clearer understanding of landscape, environment, and art, as well as what it is to "know" in the context of environmental experience, suggests how the arts can contribute to an intimate, engaged experience of landscape, and how this process itself can be construed as an art in which the perceiver is a quasi-artist. I should like to do this through a re-we…Read more
  •  174
    Aesthetics and Environment Reconsidered: Reply to Carlson: Articles
    British Journal of Aesthetics 47 (3): 315-318. 2007.
    Allen Carlson finds three central problems in my book, Aesthetics and Environment : that it lacks a criterion of the aesthetic itself, that my proposal, aesthetic engagement, is excessively subjective, and that we cannot therefore distinguish between ‘easy’ and ‘serious’ beauty. I respond by uncovering the metaphysical assumptions on which his critique rests and offer more plausible alternatives. I argue, further, that their implications are not only acceptable but fully satisfactory.
  •  163
    Environmental Sensibility
    Studia Phaenomenologica 14 17-23. 2014.
    Aesthetics is fundamentally a theory of sensible experience. Its scope has expanded greatly from an initial centering on the arts and scenic nature to the full range of appreciative experience. Expanding the range of aesthetics raises challenging questions about the experience of appreciation. Traditional accounts are inadequate in their attempt to identify and illuminate the perceptual experiences that these new applications evoke. Considering the range of environmental and everyday occasions a…Read more
  •  155
    The Soft Side of Stone: Notes for a Phenomenology of Stone
    Environmental Philosophy 4 (1/2): 49-58. 2007.
    Stone represents the firmness and intransigence of the world within which we live and act. But beyond the perception and appropriations of stone, diverse meanings lie hidden between the hardness of stone and its uses. At the same time meaning must be grounded in the stabilizing presence of a common world. Yet if all that can be said is not about stone simpliciter but only an aesthetics of its perception, uses, and meanings, have we not gained the whole world but lost its reality? The underlying …Read more
  •  148
    Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime
    Contemporary Aesthetics 7. 2009.
    The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.
  •  143
    with Rudolf Arnheim, Charles Gauss, Richard Kuhns, Avrum Stroll, Selma Jeanne Cohen, Gordon Epperson, Hilde Hein, and Charles Hartshorne
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 51 (2): 279-289. 1993.
  •  133
    Some Questions for Ecological Aesthetics
    Environmental Philosophy 13 (1): 123-135. 2016.
    Ecology has become a popular conceptual model in numerous fields of inquiry and it seems especially appropriate for environmental philosophy. Apart from its literal employment in biology, ecology has served as a useful metaphor that captures the interdependence of factors in a field of research. At the same time as ecology is suggestive, it cannot be followed literally or blindly. This paper considers the appropriateness of the uses to which ecology has been put in some recent discussions of arc…Read more
  •  126
    Living in the Landscape: Towards an Aesthetics of Environment
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (3): 302-303. 1998.
  •  119
    I: Environmental aesthetics -- A phenomenological aesthetics of environment -- Aesthetic dimensions of environmental design -- Down the garden path -- The wilderness city : a study of metaphorical experience -- Aesthetics of the coastal environment -- The world from the water -- Is there life in virtual space? -- Is greasy lake a place? -- Embodied music -- II: Social aesthetics -- The idea of a cultural aesthetic -- The social evaluation of art -- Subsidization of art as social policy -- Morali…Read more
  •  92
    An Exchange on Disinterestedness
    with Ronald Hepburn
    Contemporary Aesthetics 1. 2003.
    The idea of aesthetic disinterestedness has been a central concept in aesthetics since the late eighteenth century. This exchange offers a contemporary reconsideration of disinterestedness from different sides of the question.
  •  90
    Making Theory, Making Sense: Comments on Ronald Moore's Natural Beauty
    Ethics, Place and Environment 12 (3): 337-341. 2009.
    The broad scope and coherence of Natural Beauty are among its major strengths. Moore's syncretic theory tries to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting theoretical strands. Of special importance is his recognition that the natural world is a social institution embodying perceptions that are conditioned, experiences communicated through language, and social beliefs and conventions. These lead him to consider the natural world as actually artifactual, and he terms it the 'natureworld'. Among …Read more
  •  88
    The Aesthetics of Human Environments (edited book)
    with Allen Carlson
    Broadview Press. 2007.
    The Aesthetics of Human Environments is a companion volume to Carlson's and Berleant's The Aesthetics of Natural Environments. Whereas the earlier collection focused on the aesthetic appreciation of nature, The Aesthetics of Human Environments investigates philosophical and aesthetics issues that arise from our engagement with human environments ranging from rural landscapes to urban cityscapes. Our experience of public spaces such as shopping centers, theme parks, and gardens as well as the imp…Read more
  •  84
    Notes for a phenomenology of musical performance
    Philosophy of Music Education Review 7 (2): 73-79. 1999.
    In recognizing the wide range of sensuous perception and at the same time the originary capacity of aesthetic experience, Mikel Dufrenne has shown us the rich capabilities of phenomenology. It is in that spirit that this essay explores musical performance. Music is a multiple art. Its many traditions, forms, genres, and styles, its large variety of instruments and sounds, and its diverse uses and occasions make it difficult to speak of music as a single art form. There are, nonetheless, certain …Read more
  •  80
    The Eighteenth Century Assumptions of Analytic Aesthetics
    In T. Z. Lavine & V. Tejera (eds.), History and Anti-History in Philosophy, Transaction Publishers. pp. 256--274. 1989.
    Although artistic activity has been a major social phenomenon in the western world, aesthetics has not always reflected the changes in techniques, processes, themes and uses through which the arts have developed and had their effect. Theory most often comes after the fact, and properly so. Yet aesthetics in its history has not only displayed an unfitting hubris, with thinkers attempting to legislate about style, suitability and materials to the artist; aesthetics has also lagged far behind the l…Read more
  •  75
    The historicity of aesthetics — I
    British Journal of Aesthetics 26 (2): 101-111. 1986.
  •  74
    The historicity of aesthetics - II
    British Journal of Aesthetics 26 (3): 195-203. 1986.
  •  74
    The Idea of a Cultural Aesthetic
    Dialogue and Universalism 13 (11-12): 113-122. 2003.
    In this time of increasing international involvement, one cannot but be struck by the fact of sharply different traditions concerning art and its practice.3 Recognizing that the arts are a salient part of every culture may lead us to wonder about their features and may make us curious about how and why the arts of other cultures differ from what we find more familiar. Perhaps we hope that the arts will offer us some insight into different cultures and their distinctive worlds. This, then, is in …Read more
  •  73
    Beyond disinterestedness
    British Journal of Aesthetics 34 (3): 242-254. 1994.
  •  62
    Naturalism and Aesthetic Experience
    Journal of Speculative Philosophy 9 (3). 1995.
    In my recent book, Art and Engagement (1991), I develop the idea of aesthetic engagement as central to the appreciation of art. The human contribution to the constitution of the "work" of art, I claim, is a critical part of appreciative experience. This contribution, however, is easily misread into the history of the idea of experience that has dominated Western philosophy since the seventeenth century, a history that sees experience as an inner, personal, subjective affair. From this vantage po…Read more
  •  56
    A Rose by Any Other Name
    Filozofski Vestnik 28 (2). 2007.
    This is an essay on the tasks and capacities of aesthetic theory and the pitfalls that beset it. I want to show that aesthetics can be enlightening by revealing and studying the facets and dimensions of experiences we call aesthetic, experience that is expansive and revelatory. This kind of experience can also clarify the relation of aesthetics to other areas of knowledge, such as cultural studies, and conversely, the bearing of other disciplines on our aesthetic understanding. Aesthetic theory,…Read more
  •  52
    A note on the problem on defining `art'
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 25 (2): 239-241. 1964.