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    Against Formal Causation in Non-conscious Nature
    History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 14 (1): 170-184. 2011.
    The problem of natural teleology in biology has traditionally focused on reconciling Aristotle’s efficient and final causation. In this paper, however, I emphasize the importance of formal causation in natural teleological explanations and suggest that undermining its legitimacy is a backdoor route to undermining natural teleology itself. Formal causation, I argue, represents the “phenotype” of an object, to use a familiar word from genetics. This means that formal causes specify not only intrin…Read more
  • Against Formal Causation in Non-Conscious Nature
    Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 14. 2011.