•  57
    Why did life emerge?
    with Annila E. Annila A.
    International Journal of Astrobiology 7 (3-4). 2008.
    Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each time a new mechanism of energy transduction emerges, e.g., by random variati…Read more
  •  88
    In the light of time
    Proceedings of Royal Society A 465. 2009.
    The concept of time is examined using the second law of thermodynamics that was recently formulated as an equation of motion. According to the statistical notion of increasing entropy, flows of energy diminish differences between energy densities that form space. The flow of energy is identified with the flow of time. The non-Euclidean energy landscape, i.e. the curved space–time, is in evolution when energy is flowing down along gradients and levelling the density differences. The flows along t…Read more
  •  311
    Natural process – Natural selection
    Biophysical Chemistry 127. 2007.
    Life is supported by a myriad of chemical reactions. To describe the overall process we have formulated entropy for an open system undergoing chemical reactions. The entropy formula allows us to recognize various ways for the system to move towards more probable states. These correspond to the basic processes of life i.e. proliferation, differentiation, expansion, energy intake, adaptation and maturation. We propose that the rate of entropy production by various mechanisms is the fitness criteri…Read more
  •  69
  •  139
    Natural networks as thermodynamic systems
    with Tuomo Hartonen
    Complexity 18 (2): 53-62. 2013.