Avak Albert Howsepian

Fresno Pacific University
  •  188
    Compatibilism, evil, and the free-will defense
    Sophia 46 (3): 217-236. 2007.
    It is widely believed that (1) if theological determinism were true, in virtue of God’s role in determining created agents to perform evil actions, created agents would be neither free nor morally responsible for their evil actions and God would not be perfectly good; (2) if metaphysical compatibilism were true, the free-will defense against the deductive problem of evil would fail; and (3) on the assumption of metaphysical compatibilism, God could have actualized just any one of those myriad po…Read more
  •  153
    Treating Homosexuality: A Response to Yarhouse
    Christian Bioethics 10 (2-3): 259-267. 2004.
    Professor Mark A. Yarhouse proposes an ‘identity synthesis’ model of sexual modification therapy for homosexuals. This model is meant primarily to target the process by which one’s sexual identity is synthesized, rather than the changing of sexual orientation itself. I highlight some of the advantages of Yarhouse’s model along with some of its potential pitfalls. My primary point of departure with Yarhouse concerns how one ought to direct those self-identified homosexual clients who fall within …Read more
  •  92
    Lockwood on human identity and the primitive streak
    Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (1): 38-41. 1997.
    Michael Lockwood has recently concluded that it can be morally permissible to perform potentially damaging non-therapeutic experiments on live human (pre)embryos. The reasons he provides in support of this conclusion commit him inter alia to the following controversial theses: (i) an organism's potential for twinning bears critically on the identity conditions for that organism; and (ii) functionally intact mentality-mediating neurological structures play a critical role in establishing the iden…Read more
  •  49
    Is God Necessarily Good?: A. A. HOWSEPIAN
    Religious Studies 27 (4): 473-484. 1991.
    Few propositions are so widely affirmed among Christian theists as God is wholly good. We say of God that he is wholly good when we mean to say that God never does evil. One proposed explanation for why God is wholly good, of course, is that God is necessarily good. Although is uncontroversial among Christian theists, clearly does not enjoy such universal favour. Whereas such prominent theists as St Anselm, St Thomas Aquinas, Alvin Plantinga, and T. V. Morris have defended the truth of, other th…Read more
  •  38
    Four Queries Concerning the Metaphysics of Early Human Embryogenesis
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (2): 140-157. 2008.
    In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (1) Following its first cellular fission, is it coherent to claim that one and only one of two “blastomeric” twins of a human zygote is identical with that zygote? (2) Following the fusion of two human pre-embryos, is it coherent to claim that one and only one pre-fusion pre-embryo is identical with that postfusion pre-embryo? (3) Does a live human being come into ex…Read more
  •  37
    Toward a General Theory of Persons
    Christian Bioethics 6 (1): 15-35. 2000.
    The fundamental question I consider is the following: What is it that makes one thing a person and another thing not? I do not provide a complete answer; rather I begin to develop a framework for answering the question. In this essay I do the following: (1) distinguish between the powers possessed by persons and the constitutions of persons, and propose some metaphysical conjectures concerning the relationship between persons' powers and their constitutions; (2) propose for Christians, as well a…Read more
  •  34
    Who or What Are We?
    Review of Metaphysics 45 (3). 1992.
    The process of embryogenesis poses numerous philosophical puzzles. Conceptual difficulties encountered while attempting to clarify the ontological and moral status of the fertilized ovum, for example, are compounded in the minds of some philosophers by the possible occurrence of monozygotic twinning during the earliest stages of embryological development. In light of certain conceptual complexities engendered by this possibility, G.E.M. Anscombe, for example, has come to believe that the pivotal…Read more
  •  33
    Are Mormons Theists?
    Religious Studies 32 (3). 1996.
    In this essay I plan to meet the following four objectives: (i) Show that a commonly made inference by Christian apologists, namely inferring proposition (1) The Mormon Church is polytheistic, from proposition (2) The Mormon Church both appears to believe in the existence of numerous Gods and appears to worship numerous Gods, is an invalid inference; (ii) defend the truth of proposition (2); (iii) reject proposition (i); and (iv) given the cogency of my arguments, attempt as best I can to situat…Read more
  •  31
    Knowing, either by the light of natural reason or by the light of Christian revelation, that homosexuality is a disordered condition is not sufficient for its being ethically permissible to direct self-identified homosexual persons toward just any treatment that aims to modify sexual orientation. For example, such an undertaking would be morally impermissible in cases where the available “treatments” are known to be both futile and potentially damaging to persons undertaking them. I, therefore, …Read more
  •  28
    Middle actions
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 34 (1). 1993.
  •  26
    Are Mormons Theists?: A. A. HOWSEPIAN
    Religious Studies 32 (3): 357-370. 1996.
    It is widely believed to be a fundamental tenet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that a plurality of divine beings inhabits the universe. It has often been pointed out, for example, that according to Mormon doctrine Elohim, Jesus, and the Holy Ghost are three distinct Gods. 1 The traditional Christian doctrine of the Trinity is, thereby, unambiguously rejected. In light of this, it has become commonplace among Christian apologists 2 to infer
  •  26
    Cinematic Realism and Right to Die Legislation
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 11 (2): 63-66. 1997.
  •  20
    Philosophical Reflections on Coma
    Review of Metaphysics 47 (4). 1994.
    THE PRIMARY AIM OF THIS ESSAY is to advance discussion on how best to treat comatose patients. Its principal conclusion will be Some purportedly irreversibly comatose humans ought to be kept alive indefinitely. Of course, merely keeping such patients alive is not how best to treat them. How they are being treated while being kept alive is of paramount importance. Note that is compatible with the truth of All comatose humans ought to be kept alive indefinitely. I shall say nothing more about. It …Read more
  •  17
    Philosophia Christi 7 (1): 199-206. 2005.
  •  12
    What’s So Good about Libertarian Free Will?
    Philosophia Christi 10 (1): 201-217. 2008.
    This essay has two primary theses: we ought to desire libertarian free will if we want to be as good as we can possibly be, and we can be as good as we can possibly be only if we possess libertarian free will. A libertarian free being, in virtue of being able to refrain from evil under certain epistemic conditions, has access to an order of goodness higher than his determined counterpart could possibly have. Libertarian freedom, therefore, is preferable to compatibilist free will mainly in virtu…Read more
  •  8
    The Problem of Hell
    Philosophical Review 104 (3): 487. 1995.
  •  6
    A Libertarian-Friendly Theory of Compatabilist Free Action
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (4): 453-480. 2004.
  •  5
    Invoking Natural Law
    Hastings Center Report 28 (2): 4. 1998.
  •  2
    Brain Death
    In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, Wiley-blackwell. 2013.
  • The Theory of Middle Freedom: A Unified Acausal Theory of Free Agency
    Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 1999.
    This dissertation may be conveniently divided into four principal parts. Following a brief overview of the dissertation as a whole , in the first part , I examine several fundamental problems that are peculiar to extant theories of autonomy and free agency. In the second part , I introduce and defend a basic version of the Theory of Middle Freedom---a unified, composite, acausal theory of free agency. I argue that this theory's virtues include its providing inter alia a method for resolving the …Read more