•  396
    Conflicts among Multinational Ethical and Scientific Standards for Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Interventions
    with Jacob M. Kolman, Nelda P. Wray, Carol M. Ashton, Danielle M. Wenner, and Anna F. Jarman
    Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1): 99-121. 2012.
    Utilizing a sorted compendium of international clinical trial standards, investigators identified 15 conflicts among ethical and methodological guidance. Analysis distinguishes interpretational issues, lack of clarity, and contradiction as factors to be addressed if international trial guidance is to be improved.
  •  217
    Thomson on abortion
    Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (3): 335-340. 1972.
  •  216
  •  117
    Life and Death Decision Making
    Oxford University Press. 1988.
    Integrating theory with case studies, this book examines the practical application of moral theory in clinical decision-making through 40 composite cases based on actual clinical experience. Complex, realistic, and challenging, these examples contain the multiplicity of factors faced in clinical crises, making this a superb exploration of the ways in which theory relates to actual life-or-death situations.
  •  93
    Natural kinds and real essences
    Journal of Philosophy 64 (14): 431-446. 1967.
  •  83
    Intuitions and Objective Moral Knowledge
    The Monist 62 (4): 446-456. 1979.
    Recent years have witnessed a proliferation of philosophical discussion about such concrete moral issues as just war, distribution of food aid, euthanasia, reverse discrimination, etc. Much of this discussion implicitly assumes that there are true and false positions on these issues, valid or invalid arguments for these positions, etc. Recent years have not witnessed, however, a proliferation of philosophical defenses of these assumptions. With the decline of metaethical discussions, these assum…Read more
  •  72
    A broad critical review of national policies on biomedical research - human, epidemiologic, clinical trials, genetic, reproductive, etc.
  •  70
    Abortion and the law
    Journal of Philosophy 68 (12): 357-369. 1971.
  •  59
    Intellectual property and biotechnology: The european debate
    Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (2): 69-110. 2007.
    : The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is …Read more
  •  57
  •  54
    Intellectual property and biotechnology: The U.s. Internal experience--part I
    Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (1): 1-37. 2006.
    : In the development of biotechnology in the United States, many questions were raised about the appropriateness of applying to this area a traditional robust system of intellectual property rights. Despite these hesitations, the U.S. rejected suggested modifications. This was a mistake, and there is a need to develop a modified system that promotes more of the relevant ethical values
  •  54
    An impersonal theory of personal identity
    Philosophical Studies 26 (5-6). 1974.
    In this paper, I defend the view that the identity of indiscernibles could serve as an adequate basis for a general theory of identity. I then show how a theory of essentialism forces one to modify that general theory. In light of both the original and modified theory, I offer a new resolution of some of the classical and contemporary problems of personal identity
  •  52
    Is Futility a Futile Concept?
    with A. Halevy
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (2): 123-144. 1995.
    This paper distinguishes four major types of futility (physiological, imminent demise, lethal condition, and qualitative) that have been advocated in the literature either in a patient dependent or a patient independent fashion. It proposes five criteria (precision, prospective, social acceptability, significant number, and non-agreement) that any definition of futility must satisfy if it is to serve as the basis for unilaterally limiting futile care. It then argues that none of the definitions …Read more
  •  51
    Response to Poullier
    with R. K. Lie
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (5): 475-476. 1993.
  •  51
    Freedom and responsibility in genetic testing
    Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2): 343-359. 2002.
    Public statements by various international groups emphasize that decisions to undergo genetic screening, either for disease-carrier status or for predisposition-to-disease status, and decisions about the use of the resulting information should be made voluntarily by the party to be screened. For example, the World Medical Association, in its Declaration on the Human Genome Project, says, “One should respect the will of persons screened and their right to decide about participation and about the …Read more
  •  50
    Redistribution Without Egalitarianism
    Social Philosophy and Policy 1 (1): 71. 1983.
    I will, in this paper, set out the philosophical foundations and the basic structure of a new theory of justice. I will argue that both these foundations and the theory which is based upon them are intuitively attractive and theoretically sound. Finally, I will argue that both are supported by the fact that they lead to attractive implications such as the following: One can justify at least some governmental redistributive programs which presuppose that those receiving the wealth have a right to…Read more
  •  50
    Traditional knowledge and intellectual property
    Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (3): 231-249. 2010.
    In a recent article (Brody 2010), I analyzed the debates surrounding charges of biopiracy, that is, charges that developed countries use biotechnology patents to expropriate the biological/genetic heritage of less developed countries. Such charges often are accompanied by the additional charge that biotechnology patents are used to expropriate the traditional knowledge about the use of these resources possessed by indigenous communities in less developed countries. It is this second charge that …Read more
  •  46
    Identity and Essence
    Philosophical Quarterly 31 (125): 368. 1980.
  •  44
    Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life
    American Philosophical Quarterly 10 (2). 1973.
  •  43
    Pharmacogenetics: Ethical issues and policy options
    with Allen E. Buchanan, Andrea Califano, Jeffrey Kahn, Elizabeth McPherson, and John A. Robertson
    Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (1): 1-15. 2002.
    : Pharmacogenetics offers the prospect of an era of safer and more effective drugs, as well as more individualized use of drug therapies. Before the benefits of pharmacogenetics can be realized, the ethical issues that arise in research and clinical application of pharmacogenetic technologies must be addressed. The ethical issues raised by pharmacogenetics can be addressed under six headings: regulatory oversight, confidentiality and privacy, informed consent, availability of drugs, access, and …Read more
  •  38
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (4): 345-346. 1990.
  •  37
    Book reviews (review)
    with R. G. Swinburne, Alex C. Michalos, Gershon Weiler, Geoffrey Sampson, Marcelo Dascal, Shalom Lappin, Yehuda Melzer, Joseph Horovitz, Haim Marantz, Marcelo Dascal, M. Magidor, and Michael Katz
    Philosophia 4 (2-3): 279-281. 1974.
  •  34
    Confirmation and explanation
    Journal of Philosophy 65 (10): 282-299. 1968.
  •  31
    Assessing empirical research in bioethics
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 14 (3). 1993.
    Empirical research can aid ethical reflection in bioethics by identifying issues, by seeing how they are currently resolved, and by assessing the consequences of these current resolutions. This potential can be misused when the ethical issues in question are fundamentally non-consequentialist or when they are consequentialist but the empirical research fails to address the important consequences. An example of the former problem is some recent studies about bad consequences resulting from commer…Read more
  •  30
    Reid and Hamilton on Perception
    The Monist 55 (3): 423-441. 1971.
    Until a few years ago, the works of Thomas Reid were known only by specialists in the history of philosophy, and, insofar as people did think at all about Reid and his school of common sense philosophy, it was generally thought that Kant had been right in dismissing them as naive thinkers who did not really understand what philosophical skepticism was all about. This attitude about Reid changed very rapidly in recent years. More and more people now realize that Reid was one of the most important…Read more
  •  28
    Innovation in Human Research Protection: The AbioCor Artificial Heart Trial
    with E. Haavi Morreim, George E. Webb, Harvey L. Gordon, David Casarett, Ken Rosenfeld, James Sabin, John D. Lantos, Barry Morenz, Robert Krouse, and Stan Goodman
    American Journal of Bioethics 6 (5). 2006.
    No abstract