•  2
    This paper presents new evidence on the impact of socioeconomic status and education on knowledge attribution. I examine a variety of cases, including vignettes where agents have been Gettiered, have false beliefs, and possess knowledge. Early work investigated whether SES might be associated with knowledge attribution :429–460, 2001; Seyedsayamdost in Episteme 12:95–116, 2014). But these studies used college education as a dummy variable for SES. I use the recently developed Great British Class…Read more
  •  9
    The Development and Validation of the Epistemic Vice Scale
    Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1-28. forthcoming.
    This paper presents two studies on the development and validation of a ten-item scale of epistemic vice and the relationship between epistemic vice and misinformation and fake news. Epistemic vices have been defined as character traits that interfere with acquiring, maintaining, and transmitting knowledge. Examples of epistemic vice are gullibility and indifference to knowledge. It has been hypothesized that epistemically vicious people are especially susceptible to misinformation and conspiracy…Read more
  •  16
    Financial incentives, learning, group consultation, and increased experimental control are among the experimental techniques economists have successfully used to deflect the behavioral challenge posed by research conducted by such scholars as Tversky and Kahneman. These techniques save the economic armchair to the extent that they align laypeople judgments with economic theory by increasing cognitive effort and reflection in experimental subjects. It is natural to hypothesize that a similar stra…Read more
  •  16
    Epistemic Injustice in Finance
    Topoi 1-9. forthcoming.
    This article applies philosophical work on epistemic injustice and cognate concepts to study gender and racial disparity in financial markets. Members of disadvantaged groups often receive inferior financial services. In most jurisdictions, it is illegal to provide discriminatorily disparate treatment to groups defined by gender and skin colour. Racial disparity in financial services is generally considered to be discriminatory. The standard view among most regulators is that gender disparity is…Read more
  •  18
    Stakes Sensitivity and Credit Rating: A New Challenge for Regulators
    Journal of Business Ethics 169 (1): 169-179. 2019.
    The ethical practices of credit rating agencies, particularly following the 2008 financial crisis, have been subject to extensive analysis by economists, ethicists, and policymakers. We raise a novel issue facing CRAs that has to do with a problem concerning the transmission of epistemic status of ratings from CRAs to the beneficiaries of the ratings, and use it to provide a new challenge for regulators. Building on recent work in philosophy, we argue that since CRAs have different stakes than t…Read more
  •  18
    Impermissible Self-Rationalizing Pessimism: In Defence of a Pragmatic Ethics of Belief
    with Nikolaj Nottelmann
    Erkenntnis 86 (2): 257-274. 2021.
    We present an argument against a standard evidentialist position on the ethics of belief. We argue that sometimes a person merits criticism for holding a belief even when that belief is well supported by her evidence in any relevant sense. We show how our argument advances the case for anti-evidentialism in the light of other arguments presented in the recent literature, and respond to a set of possible evidentialist rejoinders.
  •  5
    Pledging Integrity: Oaths as Forms of Business Ethics Management
    Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1): 23-42. 2016.
    The global financial crisis has led to a surprising interest in professional oaths in business. Examples are the MBA Oath, the Economist’s Oath and the Dutch Banker’s Oath, which senior executives in the financial services industry in the Netherlands have been obliged to swear since 2010. This paper is among the first to consider oaths from the perspective of business ethics. A framework is presented for analysing oaths in terms of their form, their content and the specific contribution they mak…Read more
  •  151
    Liberal and Republican Freedom
    Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (4): 418-439. 2009.
    This paper argues that liberal freedom (non-interference) is epistemologically prior to republican freedom (non-domination). I start investigate three relations between liberal and republican freedom: (i) Logical Equivalence, or the question whether republican freedom entails liberal freedom (and vice versa); (ii) Degree Supervenience, or whether changes in the degree (amount, quantity) of republican freedom are mirrored by changes in the degree of liberal freedom (and vice versa); and (iii) Epi…Read more
  •  8
    Afscheid van een Spinozaproject
    Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 91 159-161. 2002.
  •  122
    In this chapter, one considers finance at its very foundations, namely, at the place where assumptions are being made about the ways to measure the two key ingredients of finance: risk and return. It is well known that returns for a large class of assets display a number of stylized facts that cannot be squared with the traditional views of 1960s financial economics (normality and continuity assumptions, i.e. Brownian representation of market dynamics). Despite the empirical counterevidence, no…Read more
  •  255
    This chapter argues for deregulation of the credit-rating market. Credit-rating agencies are supposed to contribute to the informational needs of investors trading bonds. They provide ratings of debt issued by corporations and governments, as well as of structured debt instruments (e.g. mortgage-backed securities). As many academics, regulators, and commentators have pointed out, the ratings of structured instruments turned out to be highly inaccurate, and, as a result, they have argued for tigh…Read more
  •  12
    Common knowledge of payoff uncertainty in games
    Synthese 163 (1): 79-97. 2008.
  •  8
    Media Violence and Freedom of Speech: How to Use Empirical Data
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (5): 493-505. 2008.
  •  7
    The Liberal Value of Privacy
    Law and Philosophy 29 (5): 505-534. 2010.
  •  304
    Game Theory in Philosophy
    Topoi 24 (2): 197-208. 2005.
    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals with games in which all players have preference orderings over the possible outcomes of the game. This paper gives an informal introduction to the theory and a survey of applications in diverse branch…Read more
  •  18
    Editorial Introduction: Putting Virtues Into Practice. A Challenge for Business and Organizations (review)
    with Joan Fontrodona and Alejo José G. Sison
    Journal of Business Ethics 113 (4): 563-565. 2013.
  •  19
    Pledging Integrity: Oaths as Forms of Business Ethics Management
    Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1): 23-42. 2016.
    The global financial crisis has led to a surprising interest in professional oaths in business. Examples are the MBA Oath, the Economist’s Oath and the Dutch Banker’s Oath, which senior executives in the financial services industry in the Netherlands have been obliged to swear since 2010. This paper is among the first to consider oaths from the perspective of business ethics. A framework is presented for analysing oaths in terms of their form, their content and the specific contribution they mak…Read more
  •  37
    Epistemic Integrity in Accounting: Accountants as Justifiers in Joint Epistemic Agents
    Business and Professional Ethics Journal 32 (1-2): 109-130. 2013.
    This paper presents an epistemological or knowledge-theoretic reinterpretation of the role of external accountants. It presents a joint epistemic agent model in which corporate management and accountants together form a source of testimonial knowledge for the firm’s stakeholders about the firm’s financial situation. Recent work from virtue epistemology is used, according to which knowledge is, roughly, true belief that is justified by way of the exercise of epistemic virtue. In the joint epistem…Read more
  •  24
    There is evidence to the effect that exposing children to alcohol consumption in the media increases the chances that they will consume alcohol as minors or as adults, and since alcohol consumption is associated with numerous public health issues, calls for stricter regulation can be heard from many quarters. This article argues that with the available research we cannot conclude that exposure to portrayals of alcohol consumption plays a genuine causal role in bringing about the things with whic…Read more
  •  64
    The Logic of Valuing
    In Thomas Boylan & Ruvin Gekker (eds.), Economics, Rational Choice and Normative Philosophy, Routledge. 2009.
    This paper analyzes the logical form of valuing. I argue that valuing a concept or property is a universal statement qua logical form, that valuing an object is an existential statement qua logical form, and, furthermore, that a correct analysis of the logical form of valuing contains doxastic operators. I show that these ingredients give rise to an interesting interplay between uniform and ununiform quantification, on the one hand, and de dicto and de re beliefs, on the other. I apply this anal…Read more
  •  26
    On Glazer and Rubinstein on persuasion
    In Krzysztof R. Apt & Robert van Rooij (eds.), New Perspectives on Games and Interactions, Amsterdam University Press. 2008.
    Jacob Glazer and Ariel Rubinstein proffer an exciting new approach to analyze persuasion, using formal tools from economics to address questions that argumentation theorists, logicians, and cognitive and social psychologists have been interested in since Aristotle's Rhetoric. In this note I examine to what extent their approach is successful, and show ways to extend it.
  •  36
    Doxastische en epistemische vrijheid
    Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 71 (3): 529. 2009.
  •  78
    On the Narrow Epistemology of Game Theoretic Agents
    In Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.), Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy, Springer. 2009.
    I argue that game theoretic explanations of human actions make implausible epistemological assumptions. A logical analysis of game theoretic explanations shows that they do not conform to the belief-desire framework of action explanation. Epistemic characterization theorems (specifying sufficient conditions for game theoretic solution concepts to obtain) are argued to be the canonical way to make game theory conform to that framework. The belief formation practices implicit in epistemic characte…Read more
  •  117
    Reducible and Nonsensical Uses of Game Theory
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (2): 247-266. 2008.
    The mathematical tools of game theory are frequently used in the social sciences and economic consultancy. But how do they explain social phenomena and support prescriptive judgments? And is the use of game theory really necessary? I analyze the logical form of explanatory and prescriptive game theoretical statements, and argue for two claims: (1) explanatory game theory can and should be reduced to rational choice theory in all cases; and (2) prescriptive game theory gives bad advice in some ca…Read more
  •  345
    Epistemic Logic and Epistemology
    In Vincent F. Hendricks & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), New Waves in Epistemology, Palgrave-macmillan. 2008.
    This paper contributes to an increasing literature strengthening the connection between epistemic logic and epistemology (Van Benthem, Hendricks). I give a survey of the most important applications of epistemic logic in epistemology. I show how it is used in the history of philosophy (Steiner's reconstruction of Descartes' sceptical argument), in solutions to Moore's paradox (Hintikka), in discussions about the relation between knowledge and belief (Lenzen) and in an alleged refutation of verifi…Read more
  •  65
    A Note on List's Modal Logic of Republican Freedom
    Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (3): 341-349. 2008.
    In this note, I show how Christian List's modal logic of republican freedom (as published in this journal in 2006) can be extended (1) to grasp the differences between liberal freedom (noninterference) and republican freedom (non-domination) in terms of two purely logical axioms and (2) to cover a more recent definition of republican freedom in terms of `arbitrary interference' that gains popularity in the literature.
  •  135
    We and the plural subject
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2): 235-259. 2009.
    Margaret Gilbert's plural subject theory defines social collectives in terms of common knowledge of expressed willingness to participate in some joint action. The author critically examines Gilbert's application of this theory to linguistic phenomena involving "we," arguing that recent work in linguistics provides the tools to develop a superior account. The author indicates that, apart from its own relevance, one should care about this critique because Gilbert's claims about the first person pl…Read more
  •  92
    Overmathematisation in game theory: pitting the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme against the Epistemic Programme
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3): 290-300. 2009.
    The paper argues that the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme was less successful than its competitor, the Epistemic Programme. The prime criterion of success is the extent to which the programmes were able to reach the key objective guiding non-cooperative game theory for much of the twentieth century, namely, to develop a complete characterisation of the strategic rationality of economic agents in the form of the ultimate solution concept for any normal form and extensive game. The paper exp…Read more