•  8
    A Complexity Theory Framework of Issue Movement
    with James R. Barker
    Business and Society 59 (6): 1110-1150. 2020.
    This research draws on complexity theory to provide an alternative conceptualization of issue management. We use six dynamics of complexity drawn from complex adaptive systems—equipoise, turbulence, sensitive conditions, bifurcation, attractor emergence, and symmetry breaking—to develop a metaphorical framework that describes what occurs during various periods of issue activity and what propels issues from one period of activity to another. We illustrate the framework with a case study of the ph…Read more
  •  5
    An Agonistic Notion of Political CSR: Melding Activism and Deliberation
    Journal of Business Ethics 170 (1): 5-19. 2021.
    Flagging labor governance in far-flung supply networks has prompted greater scrutiny of instrumental CSR and calls for models that are tethered more closely to accountability, constraint, and oversight. Political CSR is an apt response, but this paper seeks to buttress its deliberative moorings by arguing that the agonist notion of ‘domesticated conflict’ provides a necessary foundation for substantive deliberation. Because deliberation is more viable and effective when coupled with some means o…Read more
  •  15
    A Normative Argument for Independent Voice and Labor Unions
    Journal of Business Ethics 155 (4): 1153-1165. 2019.
    The paper argues that an ethical firm has cause to realize and to respect, in good faith, the decision of workers regarding labor unions, and proceeds along the following lines. First, the employer is due appropriate deference the bounds of which should be determined in conjunction with employees, as they are the most closely affected party. Second, employee preferences for defining the employment relation and appropriate deference are best reflected through autonomous voice. Third, autonomous v…Read more
  •  20
    Elevating the Role of Divestment in Socially Responsible Investing
    Journal of Business Ethics 153 (2): 465-478. 2018.
    The divest movement has focused attention on strategic and ethical differences in the practice of socially responsible investing and highlighted an unnecessary bifurcation of best-of-class engagement and divestment. Although best-of-class engagement is favored as a contemporary and pragmatic approach, this paper calls for a more pronounced recognition of absolute dealbreakers and divestment as an underpinning for best-of-class engagement. After linking divestment and best-of-class engagement to …Read more
  •  2
    Global Dispatches
    with Jennifer S. A. Leigh, Joy E. Beatty, Ranjini Swamy, and Roz Sunley
    Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 28 152-160. 2017.
    This session used a news report framework to discuss emerging and perennial challenges and opportunities for business and society scholars in the classroom. For this innovative program session, we adopted a narrowcasting approach that transmitted information relevant to a small and focused audience of responsible management scholars who share an interest in best practices in our business and society classes across all disciplines. The metaphor of the newscast aimed to convey that responsible man…Read more
  •  6
    Globalization has brought increased attention to the notion that labor rights such as freedom of association—the right of workers to organize a union—are fundamental human rights. However, the vigorous opposition to freedom of associa­tion by US firms is largely ignored in the business ethics literature and exacerbated by compensatory corporate citizenship rating mechanisms that tend to mask labor rights deficiencies. I argue that because freedom of association is a hypernorm, instrumental to fu…Read more
  •  23
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Job Choice Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Analysis
    with Jamali Dima, Charlotte Karam, Lin Lianlian, and Jixin Zhao
    Business and Society 55 (6): 854-888. 2016.
    A theory of planned behavior framework was employed to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility perceptions on the job choice intentions of American, Chinese, and Lebanese college students. Attitudes toward CSR, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explained moderate levels of the variance in job choice intention in all three countries. Attitudes toward CSR, which entailed individual evaluations of CSR, were positively related to job choice intentions among Lebanese…Read more
  •  11
    Some researchers have argued that firms with favorable environmental performance are more likely to provide voluntary environmental disclosure, while others have argued that firms with poor environmental performance are most likely to disclose. The authors propose a curvilinear relation between environmental performance and environmental disclosure that is moderated by visibility. Data were obtained from S&P 500 firms queried by Ceres' Climate Disclosure Project. Results show a U-shaped environm…Read more
  • An Exploratory Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility and Disclosure
    with John Fraas
    Business and Society 52 (2): 245-281. 2013.
    Previous studies indicate two possibly asymmetric findings about the relationship between corporate social performance and annual report disclosure practices: disclosure practices of companies with favorable CSP emanate from a sense of ethical duty, and there are strategic reasons to link CSP with disclosure practices. To test the relationship between CSP and annual report disclosure, this study divided S&P 500 companies into two groups, defined for low CSP and high CSP . For the low CSP group o…Read more
  •  101
    This article integrates theory and concepts from the business and society, business ethics, and labor relations literatures to offer a conceptualization of labor union social responsibility that includes activities geared toward three primary objectives: economic equity, workplace democracy, and social justice. Economic, workplace, and social labor union stakeholders are identified, likely issues are highlighted, and the implications of labor union social responsibility for labor union strategy …Read more
  •  46
    Agonistic Pluralism and Stakeholder Engagement
    Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (1): 1-28. 2015.
    ABSTRACT:This paper argues that, although stakeholder engagement occurs within the context of power, neither market-centered CSR nor the deliberative model of political CSR adequately addresses the specter of power asymmetries and the inevitability of conflict in stakeholder relations, particularly for powerless stakeholders. Noting that the objective of stakeholder engagement should not be benevolence toward stakeholders, but mechanisms that address power asymmetries such that stakeholders are …Read more
  •  69
    Coming Clean: The Impact of Environmental Performance and Visibility on Corporate Climate Change Disclosure (review)
    with John W. Fraas
    Journal of Business Ethics 100 (2). 2011.
    Previous research provides mixed results on the relationship between corporate environmental performance and the level of voluntary environmental disclosure. We revisit this relation by testing competing predictions from defensive and accommodative approaches to voluntary disclosure with regard to climate change. In particular, we add to the prior literature by determining the extent to which environmental performance and company media visibility interact to prompt voluntary climate change discl…Read more
  •  25
    Globalization has brought increased attention to the notion that labor rights such as freedom of association—the right of workers to organize a union—are fundamental human rights. However, the vigorous opposition to freedom of associa­tion by US firms is largely ignored in the business ethics literature and exacerbated by compensatory corporate citizenship rating mechanisms that tend to mask labor rights deficiencies. I argue that because freedom of association is a hypernorm, instrumental to fu…Read more
  •  6
    Social responsibility is addressed to corporations, but can also be applied to other powerful organizations. This study tests the impact of labor union social responsibility on key measures of labor union attachment. After developing a scale of labor union social responsibility, craft union apprentice workers were surveyed and their responses analyzed with structural equation modeling. Labor union social responsibility was directly and positively related to union commitment and job satisfaction.…Read more
  •  11
  •  20
    The Principle of Good Faith: Toward Substantive Stakeholder Engagement
    Journal of Business Ethics 121 (2): 1-13. 2014.
    Although stakeholder theory is concerned with stakeholder engagement, substantive operational barometers of engagement are lacking in the literature. This theoretical paper attempts to strengthen the accountability aspect of normative stakeholder theory with a more robust notion of stakeholder engagement derived from the concept of good faith. Specifically, it draws from the labor relations field to argue that altered power dynamics are essential underpinnings of a viable stakeholder engagement …Read more
  •  31
    Some researchers have argued that firms with favorable environmental performance are more likely to provide voluntary environmental disclosure, while others have argued that firms with poor environmental performance are most likely to disclose. The authors propose a curvilinear relation between environmental performance and environmental disclosure that is moderated by visibility. Data were obtained from S&P 500 firms queried by the Ceres’ Climate Disclosure Project. Results show a U-shaped envi…Read more