•  581
    Fundamentals of Order Ethics: Law, Business Ethics and the Financial Crisis
    Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie Beihefte 130 11-21. 2012.
    During the current financial crisis, the need for an alternative to a laissez-faire ethics of capitalism (the Milton Friedman view) becomes clear. I argue that we need an order ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. I will point to some aspects of order ethics which highlight the importance of rules, e.g. global rules for the financial markets. In this regard, order ethics (“Ordnungsethik”) is the complement o…Read more
  •  129
    The German Ethics Code for Automated and Connected Driving
    Philosophy and Technology 30 (4): 547-558. 2017.
    The ethics of autonomous cars and automated driving have been a subject of discussion in research for a number of years :28–58, 2016). As levels of automation progress, with partially automated driving already becoming standard in new cars from a number of manufacturers, the question of ethical and legal standards becomes virulent. For exam-ple, while automated and autonomous cars, being equipped with appropriate detection sensors, processors, and intelligent mapping material, have a chance of b…Read more
  •  128
    with Christoph Lütge and Zucheng Zhou
    Journal of Business Ethics Education 3 75-81. 2006.
  •  91
    Economic ethics, business ethics and the idea of mutual advantages
    Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (2): 108-118. 2005.
    Many traditional conceptions of ethics use categories and arguments that have been developed under conditions of pre-modern societies and are not useful in the age of globalisation anymore. I argue that we need an economic ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. This conception is then elaborated further in the area of business ethics. It is illustrated in the case for banning child labour.
  •  71
    In many countries around the world, the mechanisms of civil society have become very commonplace. Large companies are under constant pressure from civil society organizations to change their policies, strategies and approaches. The tobacco industry in particular is under heavy pressure in many parts of the world. Smoking has been prohibited in many public as well as private or semi-private areas in a large number of countries. However, while smoking as an addiction seems to be declining in some …Read more
  •  65
    AI4People—an ethical framework for a good AI society: opportunities, risks, principles, and recommendations
    with Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, Monica Beltrametti, Raja Chatila, Patrice Chazerand, Virginia Dignum, Robert Madelin, Ugo Pagallo, Francesca Rossi, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, and Effy Vayena
    Minds and Machines 28 (4): 689-707. 2018.
    This article reports the findings of AI4People, an Atomium—EISMD initiative designed to lay the foundations for a “Good AI Society”. We introduce the core opportunities and risks of AI for society; present a synthesis of five ethical principles that should undergird its development and adoption; and offer 20 concrete recommendations—to assess, to develop, to incentivise, and to support good AI—which in some cases may be undertaken directly by national or supranational policy makers, while in oth…Read more
  •  64
    Experimental Ethics (edited book)
    with Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch, and Matthias Uhl
    Palgrave-Macmillan. 2014.
    This volume gives an overview of the rising field of Experimental Ethics. It is organized into five main parts: PART I – Introduction: An Experimental Philosophy of Ethics? // PART II – Applied Experimental Ethics: Case studies // PART III – On Methodology // PART IV – Critical Reflections // PART V – Future Perspectives. Among the contributors: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Eric Schwitzgebel, Ezio di Nucci, Jacob Rosenthal, and Fernando Aguiar.
  •  56
    The Systematic Place of Morals in Markets [Letter]
    Science 341 (6147): 714. 2013.
    Comment on Armin Falk & Nora Szech "Morals and Markets", Science 340(6133), 707-711, 2013.
  •  49
    This article discusses the possibility of an economic foundation for a work and savings ethic. In particular, James M. Buchanan has, in his late works, endorsed traditional 'Puritan' demands for working and saving more, while arguing that this is beneficial for all members of a society. I will question Buchanan's analysis of the 'Puritan' ethic both in normative and methodological respects before aiming at a constructive interpretation.
  •  40
    Order Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Contractarianism and Business Ethics
    with Thomas Armbrüster and Julian Müller
    Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4): 687-697. 2016.
    Contract-based approaches have been a focus of attention in business ethics. As one of the grand traditions in political philosophy, contractarianism is founded on the notion that we will never resolve deep moral disagreement. Classical philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, or recent ones like Rawls and Gaus, seek to solve ethical conflicts on the level of social rules and procedures. Recent authors in business ethics have sought to utilize contract-based approaches for their field and to apply it…Read more
  •  38
    Experimentelle und Evolutionäre Ethik: Eine neue Synthese in der Moralphilosophie?
    with Hannes Rusch and Eckart Voland
    In Matthias Maring (ed.), Bereichsethiken im interdisziplinären Dialog, Kit Scientific Publishing. pp. 163-179. 2014.
    Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Darstellung des systematischen Zusammenhangs des mit dem Aufkommen der Experimentellen Philosophie neu entstandenen Teilbereichs der Experimentellen Ethik mit der spätestens seit den 1980er Jahren wieder populär gewordenen Evolutionären Ethik, einer Teildisziplin des philosophischen Naturalismus. Nach einer kurzen Charakterisierung beider ethischer Teilbereiche wird am Beispiel der metaethischen Frage nach der Objektivität moralischer Urteile dafür argumentiert, da…Read more
  •  31
    It has recently been proposed that the evolution of human cooperativeness might, at least in part, have started as the cooptation of behavioral strategies evolved for solving problems of coordination to solve problems with higher incentives to defect, i.e. problems of cooperation. Following this line of thought, we systematically tested human subjects for spillover effects from simple coordination tasks (2x2 Stag Hunt games, SH) to problems of cooperation (2x2 Prisoner’s Dilemma games, PD) in a …Read more
  •  27
    In March 2008, the German Federal Constitutional Court (GFCC) has passed an important, even though preliminary, decision concerning data retention. The GFCC’s decision accepts the storage of data, but greatly restricts their use to serious offenses like murder and organized crime. From an ethical point of view, it is particularly interesting to look at the justification given by the GFCC, which relies heavily on the argument that the “impartiality” (Unbefangenheit) of communication will be thor…Read more
  •  24
    Business Ethics and Risk Management (edited book)
    with Johanna Jauernig
    Springer. 2014.
    This volume explores various aspects of risk taking. It offers an analysis of financial, entrepreneurial and social risks, as well as a discussion of the ethical implications of empirical findings. The main issues examined in the book are the financial crisis and its implications for business ethics. The book discusses unethical behaviour as a reputational risk (e.g., in the case of Goldman Sachs) and the question is raised as to what extent the financial crisis has changed the banks’ entreprene…Read more
  •  22
    This paper draws a connection between recent developments in naturalized philosophy of science and the Buchanan research program in economics. Economic approaches in naturalized philosophy of science can be combined to form an economic philosophy of science. After giving an overview of some of these approaches, I lay out the fundamentals of the Buchanan research program. I argue that its main elements are a theory of interactions and a normative foundation in consensus which help to answer some …Read more
  •  20
    Key ethical challenges in the European Medical Information Framework
    with Luciano Floridi, Ugo Pagallo, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, Effy Vayena, Janet Addison, Nigel Hughes, Nathan Lea, Caroline Sage, Bart Vannieuwenhuyse, and Dipak Kalra
    Minds and Machines 29 (3): 355-371. 2019.
    The European Medical Information Framework project, funded through the IMI programme, has designed and implemented a federated platform to connect health data from a variety of sources across Europe, to facilitate large scale clinical and life sciences research. It enables approved users to analyse securely multiple, diverse, data via a single portal, thereby mediating research opportunities across a large quantity of research data. EMIF developed a code of practice to ensure the privacy protect…Read more
  •  19
    Throughout its age-old tradition, philosophy has continuously been presented with new challenges. The latest one in this series comes from the experimental disciplines and their methodology: experimental philosophy has, during the last 10 to 15 years, increasingly gained reputation, and it has certainly been a controversial issue. Within this movement, the field of ethics deserves more attention. This article aims to give not a complete overview of, but at least an introduction to, the newly ris…Read more
  •  16
    Many social philosophers and ethicists contend that a modern society cannot remain stable merely by its citizens obeying all of its rules. Such prominent theoreticians as J. Habermas, J. Rawls, D. Gauthier or R. Rorty hold the view that the citizens of a modern society must exhibit additional anthropological qualities which are termed moral surpluses here. Christoph Lütge argues, however, that no moral surplus is immune to erosion by systematic counter-incentives and that anthropological qualiti…Read more
  •  15
    This book questions the often implicit assumption of many contemporary political philosophers that a society needs its citizens to adopt some shared basic qualities, views, or capabilities. Christoph Luetge provides an alternative view, which relies on mutual advantages as the fundamental basis of society
  •  13
    This paper draws a connection between recent developments in naturalized philosophy of science and the Buchanan research program in economics. Economic approaches in naturalized philosophy of science can be combined to form an economic philosophy of science. After giving an overview of some of these approaches, I lay out the fundamentals of the Buchanan research program. I argue that its main elements are a theory of interactions and a normative foundation in consensus which help to answer some …Read more
  •  8
    Autonomous Driving Ethics: from Trolley Problem to Ethics of Risk
    with Maximilian Geisslinger, Franziska Poszler, Johannes Betz, and Markus Lienkamp
    Philosophy and Technology 1-23. forthcoming.
    In 2017, the German ethics commission for automated and connected driving released 20 ethical guidelines for autonomous vehicles. It is now up to the research and industrial sectors to enhance the development of autonomous vehicles based on such guidelines. In the current state of the art, we find studies on how ethical theories can be integrated. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no framework for motion planning has yet been published which allows for the true implementation of any practic…Read more
  •  7
    Dilemma situations involving the choice of which human life to save in the case of unavoidable accidents are expected to arise only rarely in the context of autonomous vehicles. Nonetheless, the scientific community has devoted significant attention to finding appropriate and acceptable automated decisions in the event that AVs or drivers of AVs were indeed to face such situations. Awad and colleagues, in their now famous paper “The Moral Machine Experiment”, used a “multilingual online ‘serious…Read more
  •  4
    The Honorable Merchant – Between Modesty and Risk-Taking: Intercultural and Literary Aspects (edited book)
    with Christoph Strosetzki
    Springer Verlag. 2019.
  •  2
    Naturalized Philosophy of Science and Economic Method
    The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37 165-179. 1998.
    This paper draws a connection between recent developments in naturalized philosophy of science and in economics. Social epistemology is one part of the naturalistic enterprise that has become especially important. Some approaches in this field use methods borrowed from economics, a fact that has often been overlooked. But there are also genuinely economic approaches to the problems of science and knowledge. Some of these approaches can be seen as contributions to an "economic epistemology." Whil…Read more
  •  2
    Competition and Ethics
    Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 49 41-46. 2018.
    “Competition” is a concept which many ethicists cast a skeptical eye on. Often, it is associated with the erosion of values and morality under competitive pressure, with “marketization” or with commercialization. I will shed a differentiated light on this concept, both from an economic, an ethical and an intercultural point of view. Competition, after all, can be instrumental for ethical goals.
  •  2
    Wettbewerb im unternehmerischen Handeln
    In Martina Plümacher & Günter Abel (eds.), The Power of Distributed Perspectives, De Gruyter. pp. 61-76. 2016.
  •  2
    Teaching Business Ethics with Experiments
    with Matthias Uhl
    Journal of Business Ethics Education 15 203-217. 2018.
    Teaching experiments are valuable when it comes to sensitizing students for business ethics that addresses the behavior of agents in modern societies. Many students are coined by the often predominantly individualistic ethical reasoning that they are accustomed to from their living environments. In our classes, we confront them with the volatility of their own ethical behavior by the use of experiments that ideally work with real incentives. We believe experiments to be a powerful tool not only …Read more