Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
  •  30
    A central theme in western philosophy was to find formal methods that can reliably discover empirical relationships and their explanations from data assembled from experience. As a philosophical project, that ambition was abandoned in the 20th century and generally dismissed as impossible. It was replaced in philosophy by neo-Kantian efforts at reconstruction and justification, and in professional statistics by the more limited ambition to estimate a small number of parameters in pre-specified h…Read more
  •  10
    Review of Joseph Halpern, Actual Causality (review)
    with Ian Rosenberg
    Halpern's Actual Causality is an extended development of an account of causal relations among individual events in the tradition that analyzes causation as difference making. The book is notable for its efforts at formal clarity, its exploration of "normality" conditions, and the wealth of examples it uses and whose provenance it traces. Unfortunately, the various normality conditions considered undermine the capacity of the basic theory to plausibly treat various cases Halpern considers, and th…Read more
  •  14
    A Photcopy of Thinking Things Through, Princeton Univeresity Press, 1980.
  •  12
    The Principle of Total Evidence is many things. We describe some of them.
  •  1
    Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (edited book)
    with Merrilee H. Salmon, John Earman, and James G. Lennox
    Hackett Publishing Company. 1992.
    A reprint of the Prentice-Hall edition of 1992. Prepared by nine distinguished philosophers and historians of science, this thoughtful reader represents a cooperative effort to provide an introduction to the philosophy of science focused on cultivating an understanding of both the workings of science and its historical and social context. Selections range from discussions of topics in general methodology to a sampling of foundational problems in various physical, biological, behavioral, and soci…Read more
  • Theory and Evidence
    Synthese 56 (1): 107-120. 1980.
  •  11
    Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference
    with J. Pearl, F. Bacchus, P. Spirtes, and R. Scheines
    Synthese 104 (1): 161-176. 1995.
  • Foundations of Space-Time Theories
    with J. S. Earman and J. J. Stachel
    British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 31 (3): 311-315. 1980.
  • Theory and Evidence
    Philosophy of Science 48 (3): 498-500. 1981.
  •  62
    Lost in the tensors: Einstein's struggles with covariance principles 1912–1916
    with John Earman
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 9 (4): 251-278. 1978.
  • Theory and Evidence
    Ethics 93 (3): 613-615. 1980.
  •  7
    Foundations of Space-Time Theories
    Philosophical Review 89 (2): 305-310. 1980.
  •  8
    Peter Spirtes and Clark Glymour. Casual Structure Among Measured Variables Preserved with Unmeasured Variables
  •  57
    Some Philosophical Prehistory of General Relativity As history, my remarks will form rather a medley. If they can claim any sort of unity (apart from a ...
  •  103
  •  62
    On Writing the History of Special Relativity
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982. 1982.
    Nearly all accounts of the genesis of special relativity unhesitatingly assume that the theory was worked out in a roughly five week period following the discovery of the relativity of simultaneity. Not only is there no direct evidence for this common presupposition, there are numerous considerations which militate against it. The evidence suggests it is far more reasonable that Einstein was already in possession of the Lorentz and field transformations, that he had applied these to the dynamics…Read more
  •  153
    The gravitational red shift as a test of general relativity: History and analysis
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 11 (3): 175-214. 1980.
  •  23
    Creative Abduction, Factor Analysis, and the Causes of Liberal Democracy
    Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 33 (1): 1-22. 2019.
    The ultimate focus of the current essay is on methods of “creative abduction” that have some guarantees as reliable guides to the truth, and those that do not. Emphasizing work by Richard Englehart using data from the World Values Survey, Gerhard Schurz has analyzed literature surrounding Samuel Huntington’s well-known claims that civilization is divided into eight contending traditions, some of which resist “modernization” – democracy, civil rights, equality of rights of women and minorities, s…Read more
  •  5
    Critical notice
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (1): 161-175. 1976.
  •  15
    Analysis of Microarray Data for Treated Fat Cells
    with Nicoleta Serban, Larry Wasserman, David Peters, Peter Spirtes, Robert O'Doherty, Daniel Handley, and Richard Scheines
    DNA microarrays are perfectly suited for comparing gene expression in different populations of cells. An important application of microarray techniques is identifying genes which are activated by a particular drug of interest. This process will allow biologists to identify therapies targeted to particular diseases, and, eventually, to gain more knowledge about the biological processes in organisms. Such an application is described in this paper. It is focused on diabetes and obesity, which is a …Read more
  •  73
    Linear structural equation models (SEMs) are widely used in sociology, econometrics, biology, and other sciences. A SEM (without free parameters) has two parts: a probability distribution (in the Normal case specified by a set of linear structural equations and a covariance matrix among the “error” or “disturbance” terms), and an associated path diagram corresponding to the causal relations among variables specified by the structural equations and the correlations among the error terms. It is of…Read more
  •  33
    Jon Williamson bayesian nets and causality
    British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4): 849-855. 2009.
  •  19
    Hans Reichenbach's probability logic
    In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic, Elsevier. pp. 10--357. 2004.