Claremont Graduate University
Department of Philosophy
PhD, 1990
Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany
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    Treaty Norms and Climate Change Mitigation
    Ethics and International Affairs 23 (3): 247-265. 2009.
    UNFCCC norms tightly constrain the range of acceptable agreements for the distribution of burdens to mitigate climate change, restricting us to two viable guiding principles: the equitable distribution of responsibilities and the right to development. Both principles place much heavier mitigation burdens on industrialized countries.
  •  23
    Special issue: Current debates in global justice
    with Gillian Brock
    The Journal of Ethics 9 589-591. 2005.
  •  10
    Marxism, Internationalism, and the Justice of War
    Science and Society 58 (3). 1994.
    This paper examines the UN provisions concerning the legitimate use of force, which justified the 1991 Gulf War, and Michael Walzer's arguments, which can be read as a justification of the UN provisions. After a brief historical sketch of the approach to internationalism of Marx, Lenin, and the early Bolshevik regime, alternative internationalist criteria of Jus ad Bellum are proposed, which assume certain forms of common oppression among peoples of different states. If certain forms of common o…Read more
  • Equality of Opportunity Globalized?
    Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 19 (2). 2006.
    The principle of global equality of opportunity is an important part of the commitment to global egalitarianism. In this paper I discuss how a principle of global equality of opportunity follows from a commitment to equal respect for the autonomy of all persons, and defend the principle against some of the criticism that it has received. The particular criticisms that I address contend that a moral view based upon dignity and respect cannot take properties of persons—such as their citizenship—as…Read more
  •  14
    Consensus and Cognitivism in Habermas's Discourse Ethics
    South African Journal of Philosophy 19 (2): 65-74. 2000.
    Habermas asserts that his discourse ethics rests on two main commitments: 1) Moral judgements have cognitive content analogous to truth value; and 2) moral justification requires real- life discourse. Habermas elaborates on the second claim by making actual consensus a necessary condition of normative validity. I argue that Habermas's two commitments sit uneasily together. The second entails that his cognitivism is revisionist in the sense that it must reject the law of the excluded middle. More…Read more
  •  79
    Capitalist exploitation, self-ownership, and equality
    with Michael Pendlebury and Peter Hudson
    Philosophical Forum 32 (3). 2001.
    Traditional Marxists hold that capitalist modes of production are unjustly exploitative. In 'Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality' G. A. Cohen argues that this ``exploitation charge'' commits traditional Marxists to the thesis that people own themselves (``self-ownership''). If so, then traditional Marxism is vulnerable to a libertarian challenge to its commitment to equality. Cohen, therefore, recommends that Marxists abandon the exploitation charge. This paper undermines Cohen's case for the a…Read more
  •  9
    Anti-Poverty, Development, and the Limits of Progress
    Res Publica 22 (3): 317-325. 2016.
    In this paper I critically engage with Hennie Lötter’s impressive book, Poverty, Ethics and Justice. I discuss his conception of poverty, and offer an interpretation of his claim that poverty is a uniquely human scourge. I exam the various harms of poverty that Lötter discusses. I consider two reasons that he offers for why we have a moral duty to end poverty, and I argue that the reason based on what we can justify to others if we take their human dignity seriously is most compelling. Finally, …Read more
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    Two Doctrines of Jus ex Bello
    Ethics 125 (3): 653-673. 2015.
    This article discusses two doctrines of jus ex bello concerning whether and how to end wars. In Section I, I defend the claim that there is a distinct morality of ending wars. Section II rebuts a challenge that the account is too permissive of war. Section III rejects a forward-looking conception of proportionality for jus ex bello. In Section IV, I allow an exception in cases in which the just cause for the war has changed. In Section V, I defend five principles governing how to end a war
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    Global ethics: a short reflection on then and now
    with Heather Widdows
    Journal of Global Ethics 10 (3): 319-325. 2014.
    Ten years on from the first issue of the Journal of Global Ethics, Darrel Moellendorf and Heather Widdows reflect on the current state of research in global ethics. To do this, they summarise a recent comprehensive road map of the field and provide a map of research by delineating the topics and approaches of leading scholars of global ethics collected together in the recently published Routledge Handbook of Global Ethics which they have co-edited. Topics fall under issues of war, conflict and v…Read more
  • Constructing the law of peoples
    Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 77 (2): 132-154. 1996.
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    A review essay of Gillian Brock Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account (Oxford University Press, 2009)
  •  1
    The Routledge Handbook of Global Ethics (edited book)
    Routledge. 2014.
    Global ethics focuses on the most pressing contemporary ethical issues - poverty, global trade, terrorism, torture, pollution, climate change and the management of scarce recourses. It draws on moral and political philosophy, political and social science, empirical research, and real-world policy and activism. The Routledge Handbook of Global Ethics is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems and debates in this exciting subject, presenting an authoritative overview of the mos…Read more
  •  46
    Hope as a Political Virtue
    Philosophical Papers 35 (3): 413-433. 2006.
    In this paper I argue that hope is best understood as a compound psychological state. When we take hope according to the details of this account, we are in a good position to understand why it is a political virtue of persons. I also argue that securing the institutional bases of hope is a virtue of state institutions, particularly in states in transition from severe injustice. And, finally, when the bases are secure, a person who fails to hope for the political future is in that regard prima fa…Read more
  • Persons' interests, states' duties, and global governance
    In Gillian Brock & Harry Brighouse (eds.), The Political Philosophy of Cosmopolitanism, Cambridge University Press. 2005.
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    Jus ex Bello in Afghanistan
    Ethics and International Affairs 25 (2): 155-164. 2011.
    I agree with Professor Miller that just war theory is limited when it comes to judging whether and how to end a war. But Miller fails to understand adequately what these limitations are and the extent to which they can be addressed within just war theory
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    Equal Respect and Global Egalitarianism
    Social Theory and Practice 32 (4): 601-616. 2006.
  •  153
    Climate Change Justice
    Philosophy Compass 10 (3): 173-186. 2015.
    Anthropogenic climate change is a global process affecting the lives and well-being of millions of people now and countless number of people in the future. For humans, the consequences may include significant threats to food security globally and regionally, increased risks of from food-borne and water-borne as well as vector-borne diseases, increased displacement of people due migrations, increased risks of violent conflicts, slowed economic growth and poverty eradication, and the creation of n…Read more
  • Global Responsibilities (edited book)
    with Thomas Winfried Menko Pogge
    Paragon House. 2008.
    v. 1. Global justice : seminal essays -- v. 2. Global ethics : seminal essays.
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    A Reconstruction of Hegel’s Account of Freedom of the Will
    The Owl of Minerva 24 (1): 5-18. 1992.
    “Will which is actually free is the unity of theoretical and practical spirit.” So opens the section of Hegel’s Encyclopedia known as “Free Spirit.” This text as well as both its immediate textual predecessor “Practical Spirit” and the introduction to the Philosophy of right comprise the mature Hegel’s attempt to give an account of freedom of the will, and mark a full departure from the Kantian standpoint on the matter. While Kant sees the evidence of freedom of the will in the moral ought, Hege…Read more
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    Transcendental institutionalism and global justice
    Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 16 (2): 162-178. 2013.
    In The Idea of Justice (2009), Amartya Sen distinguishes between ?transcendental institutional? approaches to justice and ?realization-focused comparisons,? rejecting the former and recommending the latter as a normative approach to global justice. I argue that Sen?s project fails for three principal reasons. First, he misdiagnoses the problem with accounts that he refers to as transcendental-institutionalist. The problem is not with these kinds of accounts per se, but with particular features o…Read more
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  • Hegel's Philosophy of Subjective Spirit
    Dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University. 1990.
    This critical commentary on the three sections of the philosophy of subjective spirit as it appears in Hegel's final Berlin Encyclopedia uses them to come to a better understanding and evaluation of his general philosophical perspective. This is in contrast to two sorts of dangers which Hegel scholarship faces. One is getting so caught up in summarizing and interpreting the troublesome texts that no evaluation is provided. The other is to view Hegel unsympathetically through the criteria of cont…Read more
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    David Schweickart, Against Capitalism Reviewed by
    Philosophy in Review 15 (5): 354-356. 1995.
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    Cosmopolitanism and Compatriot Duties
    The Monist 94 (4): 535-554. 2011.
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    Why Global Inequality Matters
    Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (1): 99-109. 2011.
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    The world trade organization and egalitarian justice
    Metaphilosophy 36 (1‐2): 145-162. 2005.