8Counterevidence from psychopharmacology, psychopathology, and psychobiologyBehavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2): 302-303. 1995.
12Identifying adaptation by dysfunctionBehavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4): 521-522. 2002.Specifying exact selection pressures for identifying adaptations is unnecessary. Novel behaviors are not spandrels since they can only develop because of prior functions. An adaptationist approach has a high prior probability, whereas spandrel hypotheses attempt to prove a negative. The concept of maladaptive spandrel is criticized. The utility of dysfunctional states for identification of adaptations gone wrong is emphasized