•  827
    with Norman Kretzmann
    Journal of Philosophy 78 (8): 429-458. 1981.
  •  751
    The Problem of Evil
    Faith and Philosophy 2 (4): 392-423. 1985.
    This paper considers briefly the approach to the problem of evil by Alvin Plantinga, Richard Swinburne, and John Hick and argues that none of these approaches is entirely satisfactory. The paper then develops a different strategy for dealing with the problem of evil by expounding and taking seriously three Christian claims relevant to the problem: Adam fell; natural evil entered the world as a result of Adam's fall; and after death human beings go either to heaven or hell. Properly interpreted, …Read more
  •  524
    Dante's Hell, Aquinas's Moral Theory, and the Love of God
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16 (2): 181-198. 1986.
    ‘Abandon all hope, ye who enter here’ is, as we all recognize, the inscription over the gate of Dante's hell; but we perhaps forget what precedes that memorable line. Hell, the inscription says, was built by divine power, by the highest wisdom, and by primordial love. Those of us who remember Dante's vivid picture of Farinata in the perpetually burning tombs or Ulysses in the unending and yet unconsuming flames may be able to credit Dante's idea that Hell was constructed by divine power; and if …Read more
  •  523
    Wandering in Darkness: Further Reflections
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (3): 197--219. 2012.
  •  464
    Atonement and the Cry of Dereliction from the Cross
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1): 1. 2012.
    Any interpretation of the doctrine of the atonement has to take account of relevant biblical texts. Among these texts, one that has been the most difficult to interpret is that describing the cry of dereliction from the cross. According to the Gospels of Mathew and Mark, on the cross Jesus cries, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?‘ In this paper, I give a philosophical analysis of the options for understanding the cry of dereliction, interpreted within the constraints of orthodox Christi…Read more
  •  399
    Omnipresence, Indwelling, and the Second-Personal
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 5 (4): 29--53. 2013.
    The claim that God is maximally present is characteristic of all three major monotheisms. In this paper, I explore this claim with regard to Christianity. First, God’s omnipresence is a matter of God’s relations to all space at all times at once, because omnipresence is an attribute of an eternal God. In addition, God is also present with and to a person. The assumption of a human nature ensures that God is never without the ability to be present with human persons in the way mind-reading enable…Read more
  •  373
    Non-Cartesian Substance Dualism and Materialism Without Reductionism
    Faith and Philosophy 12 (4): 505-531. 1995.
    The major Western monotheisms, and Christianity in particular, are often supposed to be committed to a substance dualism of a Cartesian sort. Aquinas, however, has an account of the soul which is non-Cartesian in character. He takes the soul to be something essentially immaterial or configurational but nonetheless realized in material components. In this paper, I argue that Aquinas’s account is coherent and philosophically interesting; in my view, it suggests not only that Cartesian dualism isn’…Read more
  •  244
    Knowledge, freedom and the problem of evil
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (1). 1983.
  •  236
    Absolute Simplicity
    with Norman Kretzmann
    Faith and Philosophy 2 (4): 353-382. 1985.
    The doctrine of God’s absolute simplicity denies the possibility of real distinctions in God. It is, e.g., impossible that God have any kind of parts or any intrinsic accidental properties, or that there be real distinctions among God’s essential properties or between any of them and God himself. After showing that some of the counter-intuitive implications of the doctrine can readily be made sense of, the authors identify the apparent incompatibility of God’s simplicity and God’s free choice as…Read more
  •  186
    The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz
    Review of Metaphysics 36 (3): 701-703. 1983.
    As he makes plain in the preface, Craig's purpose in writing this book is to provide a historical, rather than a critical, exposition of the cosmological proof for the existence of God. In recent years, interest in the cosmological argument has been increasing, but evaluation of it on the part of philosophers of religion has been marked by "woeful ignorance of the historical versions of the argument," as Craig quite correctly remarks. In this book, Craig attempts to lay the foundation for more i…Read more
  •  181
    Scholars discussing Aquinas’s ethics typically understand it as largely Aristotelian, though with some differences accounted for by the differences in world­view between Aristotle and Aquinas. In this paper, I argue against this view. I show that although Aquinas recognizes the Aristotelian virtues, he thinks they are not real virtues. Instead, for Aquinas, the passions—or the suitably formulated intellectual and volitional analogues to the passions—are not only the foundation of any real ethica…Read more
  •  180
    Love, by All Accounts
    Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 80 (2). 2006.
  •  173
    Petitionary prayer
    In J. Houston (ed.), American Philosophical Quarterly, Handsel Press. 1984.
  •  152
    The Doctrine of the Atonement: Response to Michael Rea, Trent Dougherty, and Brandon Warmke
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1): 165-186. 2019.
  •  141
    Aquinas on the Sufferings of Job
    In Daniel Howard-Snyder (ed.), The Evidential Argument From Evil, Indiana University Press. pp. 49--68. 1996.
  •  128
    Routledge. 2003.
    Few philosophers or theologians exerted as much influence on the shape of medieval thought as Thomas Aquinas. He ranks amongst the most famous of the Western philosophers and was responsible for almost single-handedly bringing the philosophy of Aristotle into harmony with Christianity. He was also one of the first philosophers to argue that philosophy and theology could support each other. The shape of metaphysics, theology, and Aristotelian thought today still bears the imprint of Aquinas' work…Read more
  •  127
    Aquinas on the foundations of knowledge
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (sup1): 125-158. 1991.
  •  120
    Augustine on free will
    In Eleonore Stump & Norman Kretzmann (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Augustine, Cambridge University Press. pp. 124--47. 2001.
  •  109
    Aquinas’s account of freedom: Intellect and will
    The Monist 80 (4): 576-597. 1997.
    It is difficult to develop a comprehensive and satisfactory account of Aquinas’s views of the nature of human freedom.
  •  108
    Prophecy, past truth, and eternity
    with Norman Kretzmann
    Philosophical Perspectives 5 395-424. 1991.
  •  105
    The Nature of a Simple God
    Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 87 33-42. 2013.
  •  104
    Awe and Atheism
    Midwest Studies in Philosophy 21 (1): 281-289. 1997.
  •  91
    An Objection to Swinburne’s Argument for Dualism
    with Norman Kretzmann
    Faith and Philosophy 13 (3): 405-412. 1996.
  •  87
    Introduction Since my work in medieval logic has concentrated on dialectic. I have tried to trace scholastic treatments of dialectic to discussions of it in ...
  •  84
    Eternity and God’s Knowledge: A Reply to Shanley
    with Norman Kretzmann
    American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (3): 439-445. 1998.
  •  78
    Atemporal duration: A reply to Fitzgerald
    with Norman Kretzmann
    Journal of Philosophy 84 (4): 214-219. 1987.