Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
  • Adaptation
    Cambridge University Press. 2021.
    Natural selection causes adaptation, the fit between an organism and its environment. For example, the white and grey coloration of snowy owls living and breeding around the Arctic Circle provides camouflage from both predators and prey. In this Element, we explore a variety of such outcomes of the evolutionary process, including both adaptations and alternatives to adaptations, such as nonadaptive traits inherited from ancestors. We also explore how the concept of adaptation is used in evolutio…Read more
  •  26
    Severe weather event attribution: Why values won't go away
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84 142-149. 2020.
  •  1
    Introduction
    In Elisabeth A. Lloyd & Eric Winsberg (eds.), Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues, Springer Verlag. pp. 1-28. 2018.
    As we advance into the twenty-first century, the evidence of climate change is all around us. In the introduction to this volume, we discuss some of the successes of climate science in understanding and attributing the causes of these changes, as well as some of the challenges it faces in addressing questions for which we do not yet have the answers. We focus on the role of climate models and the philosophical and conceptual problems facing climate modelers and climate modeling. We then give the…Read more
  •  1
    Satellite Data and Climate Models
    In Elisabeth A. Lloyd & Eric Winsberg (eds.), Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues, Springer Verlag. pp. 65-71. 2018.
    In this brief chapter, Lloyd sets the stage for the following three papers, most centrally, Santer et al., which discusses whether the satellite data fit with climate models. Its target is a paper by Douglass et al., which claimed that satellite and weather balloon data showed that the climate models were wrong and could not be trusted. The Santer and Wigley “Fact Sheet” gives a nontechnical summary of what is wrong with the Douglass paper, while the full story is in Chap. 5, a reprint of the Sa…Read more
  •  1
    Climate scientists have been engaged in a decades-long debate over the standing of satellite measurements of the temperature trends of the atmosphere above the surface of the earth. This is especially significant because skeptics of global warming and the greenhouse effect have utilized this debate to spread doubt about global climate models used to predict future states of climate. I use this case from an understudied science to illustrate two distinct philosophical approaches to the relations …Read more
  •  11
    Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues (edited book)
    Springer Verlag. 2018.
    1. Introduction; Elisabeth A. Lloyd and Eric Winsberg.- Section 1: Confirmation and Evidence.- 2. The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change: How Do We Know We’re Not Wrong?; Naomi Oreskes.- 3. Satellite Data and Climate Models Redux.- 3a. Introduction to Chapter 3: Satellite Data and Climate Models; Elisabeth A. Lloyd.- Ch. 3b Fact Sheet to "Consistency of Modelled and Observed Temperature Trends in the Tropical Troposphere"; Benjamin D. Santer et al..- Ch. 3c Reprint of "Consistency of Modelle…Read more
  •  250
    Sometimes an Orgasm is Just an Orgasm
    with Erika Lorraine Milam, Gillian R. Brown, Stefan Linquist, and Steve Fuller
    Metascience 15 (3): 399-435. 2006.
    I should like to offer my greatest thanks to Paul Griffiths for providing the opportunity for this exchange, and to commentators Gillian Brown, Steven Fuller, Stefan Linquist, and Erika Milam for their generous and thought-provoking comments. I shall do my best in this space to respond to some of their concerns.
  •  23
    Criteria for Holobionts from Community Genetics
    with Michael J. Wade
    Biological Theory 14 (3): 151-170. 2019.
    We address the controversy in the literature concerning the definition of holobionts and the apparent constraints on their evolution using concepts from community population genetics. The genetics of holobionts, consisting of a host and diverse microbial symbionts, has been neglected in many discussions of the topic, and, where it has been discussed, a gene-centric, species-centric view, based in genomic conflict, has been predominant. Because coevolution takes place between traits or genes in t…Read more
  •  54
    Session 2: Female orgasms and evolutionary theory
    with Karen Arnold, Sandra D. Mitchell, and Wendy Parker
    Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Workshop in History and Philosophy of Biology, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, March 23-24 2001 Session 2: Female Orgasms and Evolutionary Theory.
  •  19
    Elisabeth Lloyd Papers 1954-2017
    Archives of Scientific Philosophy, Archives and Special Collections, University of Pittsburgh Library System
    Elisabeth Lloyd is an American philosopher of science whose work is centered in the field of philosophy of biology. The material in this archive documents her work in philosophy of biology. The materials extend over the whole of her career and include manuscript materials, working notes on articles and books in progress, professional correspondence, teaching materials, documents relating to work with professional organizations, talks given to professional audiences, as well as annotated books, m…Read more
  •  83
    Holobionts as Units of Selection and a Model of Their Population Dynamics and Evolution
    with Joan Roughgarden, Scott F. Gilbert, Eugene Rosenberg, and Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg
    Biological Theory 13 (1): 44-65. 2018.
    Holobionts, consisting of a host and diverse microbial symbionts, function as distinct biological entities anatomically, metabolically, immunologically, and developmentally. Symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of vertical and horizontal methods. Holobionts can be considered levels of selection in evolution because they are well-defined interactors, replicators/reproducers, and manifestors of adaptation. An initial mathematical model is presented to help understand …Read more
  •  42
    Exaptation Revisited: Changes Imposed by Evolutionary Psychologists and Behavioral Biologists
    with Stephen Gould
    Biological Theory 12 (1): 50-65. 2017.
    Some methodological adaptationists hijacked the term “exaptation,” and took an occasion of Stephen Jay Gould’s misspeaking as confirmation that it possessed an evolutionarily “designed” function and was a version of an adaptation, something it was decidedly not. Others provided a standard of evidence for exaptation that was inappropriate, and based on an adaptationist worldview. This article is intended to serve as both an analysis of and correction to those situations. Gould and Elisabeth Vrba’…Read more
  •  551
    Pluralism without Genic Causes?
    with Matthew Dunn, Jennifer Cianciollo, and Costas Mannouris
    Philosophy of Science 72 (2): 334-341. 2005.
    Since the fundamental challenge that I laid at the doorstep of the pluralists was to defend, with nonderivative models, a strong notion of genic cause, it is fatal that Waters has failed to meet that challenge. Waters agrees with me that there is only a single cause operating in these models, but he argues for a notion of causal ‘parsing’ to sustain the viability of some form of pluralism. Waters and his colleagues have some very interesting and important ideas about the sciences, involving plur…Read more
  •  13
    The Generational Cycle of State Spaces and Adequate Genetical Representation
    with Richard C. Lewontin and Marcus W. Feldman
    Philosophy of Science 75 (2): 140-156. 2008.
  • A Semantic Approach to the Structure of Evolutionary Theory
    Dissertation, Princeton University. 1984.
    The structure of evolutionary theory has proved difficult to characterize. Most available analyses focus on the existence of evolutionary laws and on the axiomatizability of the theory; such analyses pay insufficient attention to mathematical evolutionary models and their structure, and to the structural complications arising from the variety of evolutionary sub-theories. ;The primary goal of this dissertation is to introduce and develop an analysis of the structure of evolutionary theory that i…Read more
  •  7
    Evolution's lost souls
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5): 484-485. 2006.
    The target article speaks loudest about what it cannot see – that man exists in God. Its claim that supernatural beliefs are “evolved errors” rests on unwarranted assumption and mistaken argument. Implications for evolutionary study are considered.
  •  210
    Individuality and adaptation across levels of selection: How shall we name and generalize the unit of Darwinism?
    with Stephen Jay Gould
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21): 11904-09. 1999.
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast …Read more
  •  5
    Selection Models and the Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection
    Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 3 108-112. 1988.
  •  1021
    Pre-Theoretical Assumptions in Evolutionary Explanations of female sexuality
    Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3): 139-153. 1993.
    My contribution to this Symposium focuses on the links between sexuality and reproduction from the evolutionary point of view.' The relation between women's sexuality and reproduction is particularly importantb ecause of a vital intersectionb etweenp olitics and biology feminists have noticed, for more than a century, that women's identity is often defined in terms of her reproductive capacity. More recently, in the second wave of the feminist movement in the United States, debates about women's…Read more
  •  69
    I—Elisabeth A. Lloyd: Varieties of Support and Confirmation of Climate Models
    Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1): 213-232. 2009.
  •  29
    Evaluation of Evidence in Group Selection Debates
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986. 1986.
    I address the controversy in evolutionary biology concerning which levels of biological entity (units) can and do undergo natural selection. I refine a definition of the unit of selection, first presented by William Wimsatt, that is grounded in the structure of natural selection models. I examine Elliott Sober's objection to this structural definition, the "homogeneous populations" problem; I find that neither the proposed definition nor Sober's own causal account can solve the problem. Sober, i…Read more
  •  2
    The Science Question in Feminism. Sandra Harding
    Isis 79 (2): 308-309. 1988.
  •  582
    A semantic approach to the structure of population genetics
    Philosophy of Science 51 (2): 242-264. 1984.
    A precise formulation of the structure of modern evolutionary theory has proved elusive. In this paper, I introduce and develop a formal approach to the structure of population genetics, evolutionary theory's most developed sub-theory. Under the semantic approach, used as a framework in this paper, presenting a theory consists in presenting a related family of models. I offer general guidelines and examples for the classification of population genetics models; the defining features of the models…Read more
  • 1. From the New Editor From the New Editor (p. iii)
    with Michael Dickson, C. Kenneth Waters, Matthew Dunn, Jennifer Cianciollo, Costas Mannouris, Richard Bradley, and James Mattingly
    Philosophy of Science 72 (2). 2005.
  •  34
    Response to Sloep and Van der Steen
    Biology and Philosophy 2 (1): 23-26. 1987.
  •  384
    Model robustness as a confirmatory virtue: The case of climate science
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49 58-68. 2015.
    I propose a distinct type of robustness, which I suggest can support a confirmatory role in scientific reasoning, contrary to the usual philosophical claims. In model robustness, repeated production of the empirically successful model prediction or retrodiction against a background of independentlysupported and varying model constructions, within a group of models containing a shared causal factor, may suggest how confident we can be in the causal factor and predictions/retrodictions, especially…Read more
  •  21
    Feminism As Method: What Scientists Get That Philosophers Don’t
    Philosophical Topics 23 (2): 189-220. 1995.
  •  40
    The structure and confirmation of evolutionary theory
    Princeton University Press. 1994.
    Traditionally a scientific theory is viewed as based on universal laws of nature that serve as axioms for logical deduction. In analyzing the logical structure of evolutionary biology, Elisabeth Lloyd argues that the semantic account is more appropriate and powerful. This book will be of interest to biologists and philosophers alike.