•  129
    with Scott Barry Kaufman
    In Elliot Samuel Paul & Scott Barry Kaufman (eds.), The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays, . pp. 3-14. 2014.
  •  353
    Cartesian Clarity
    Philosophers' Imprint 20 (19): 1-28. 2020.
    Clear and distinct perception is the centrepiece of Descartes’s philosophy — it is the source of all certainty — but what does he mean by ‘clear’ and ‘distinct’? According to the prevailing approach, what it means for a perception to be clear is that its content has a certain objective property, like truth. I argue instead that clarity is at least partly a subjective, phenomenal quality whereby a content is presented as true to the perceiving subject. Clarity comes in degrees. Any weak degree of…Read more
  •  279
    Attributing Creativity
    In Berys Gaut & Matthew Kieran (eds.), Creativity and Philosophy, Routledge. 2018.
    Three kinds of things may be creative: persons, processes, and products. The standard definition of creativity, used nearly by consensus in psychological research, focuses specifically on products and says that a product is creative if and only if it is new and valuable. We argue that at least one further condition is necessary for a product to be creative: it must have been produced by the right kind of process. We argue furthermore that this point has an interesting epistemological implicat…Read more
  •  594
    We offer a brief characterization of creativity, followed by a review of some of the reasons people have been skeptical about the possibility of explaining creativity. We then survey some of the recent work on creativity that is naturalistic in the sense that it presumes creativity is natural (as opposed to magical, occult, or supernatural) and is therefore amenable to scientific inquiry. This work is divided into two categories. The broader category is empirical philosophy, which draws on empir…Read more
  •  278
    Descartes’s Anti-Transparency and the Need for Radical Doubt
    Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5 1083-1129. 2018.
    Descartes is widely portrayed as the arch proponent of “the epistemological transparency of thought” (or simply, “Transparency”). The most promising version of this view—Transparency-through-Introspection—says that introspecting (i.e., inwardly attending to) a thought guarantees certain knowledge of that thought. But Descartes rejects this view and provides numerous counterexamples to it. I argue that, instead, Descartes’s theory of self-knowledge is just an application of his general theory of …Read more
  •  206
    The Philosophy of Creativity (edited book)
    with Scott Barry Kaufman
    Oxford University Press. 2014.
    Creativity pervades human life. It is the mark of individuality, the vehicle of self-expression, and the engine of progress in every human endeavor. It also raises a wealth of neglected and yet evocative philosophical questions: What is the role of consciousness in the creative process? How does the audience for a work for art influence its creation? How can creativity emerge through childhood pretending? Do great works of literature give us insight into human nature? Can a computer program real…Read more
  •  92
    A book review of Raffaella De Rosa's Descartes and the Puzzle of Sensory Representation"