•  70
    Kuhn, Values and Academic Freedom
    Logos and Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology. forthcoming.
    For Kuhn, there are a number of values which provide scientists with a shared basis for theory-choice. These values include accuracy, breadth, consistency, simplicity and fruitfulness. Each of these values may be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, there may be conflict between the values in application to specific theories. In this short paper, Kuhn's idea of scientific values is extended to the value of academic freedom. The value of academic freedom may be interpreted in a number of…Read more
  •  90
    How Not To Know The Principle of Induction
    International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 11 (3): 243-254. 2021.
    In The Problems of Philosophy, Bertrand Russell presents a justification of induction based on a principle he refers to as “the principle of induction”. Owing to the ambiguity of the notion of probability, the principle of induction may be interpreted in two different ways. If interpreted in terms of the subjective interpretation of probability, the principle of induction may be known a priori to be true. But it is unclear how this should give us any confidence in our use of induction, since …Read more
  •  132
    Epistemic Objectivity and the Virtues
    Filozofia Nauki 28 (3): 5-23. 2020.
    The aim of this paper is to bring the resources of virtue epistemology to bear on the issue of the epistemic objectivity of science. A distinction is made between theoretical virtues that may be possessed by scientific theories and epistemic virtues that may be exercised by individual scientists. A distinction is then made between ontological objectivity, objectivity of truth and epistemic objectivity, the latter being the principal focus of the paper. It is then noted that a role must be pla…Read more
  •  105
    Laudan, Intuition and Normative Naturalism
    Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 27 (4): 437-445. 2020.
    The aim of this paper is to document Laudan's rejection of the appeal to intuition in the context of his development of normative naturalism. At one point in the development of his methodological thinking, Laudan appealed to pre-analytic intuitions, which might be employed to identify episodes in the history of science against which theories of scientific methodology are to be tested. However, Laudan came to reject this appeal to intuitions, and rejected this entire approach to the evaluation …Read more
  •  276
    Realism and the Epistemic Objectivity of Science
    Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 35 (1): 5-20. 2021.
    The paper presents a realist account of the epistemic objectivity of science. Epistemic objectivity is distinguished from ontological objectivity and the objectivity of truth. As background, T.S. Kuhn’s idea that scientific theory-choice is based on shared scientific values with a role for both objective and subjective factors is discussed. Kuhn’s values are epistemologically ungrounded, hence provide a minimal sense of objectivity. A robust account of epistemic objectivity on which methodol…Read more
  •  103
    Why Must Justification Guarantee Truth? Reply to Mizrahi
    Logos and Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology 10 (4): 445-447. 2019.
    This reply provides further grounds to doubt Mizrahi’s argument for an infallibilist theory of knowledge. It is pointed out that the fact that knowledge requires both truth and justification does not entail that the level of justification required for knowledge be sufficient to guarantee truth. In addition, an argument presented by Mizrahi appears to equivocate with respect to the interpretation of the phrase “p cannot be false”.
  •  124
    Factivity or Grounds? Comment on Mizrahi
    Logos and Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology 10 (3): 333-4. 2019.
    This is a comment on Moti Mizrahi's paper ' You Can't Handle the Truth: Knowledge = Epistemic Certainty'. Mizrahi claims that the factivity of knowledge entails that knowledge requires epistemic certainty. But the argument that Mizrahi presents does not proceed from factivity to certainty. Instead, it proceeds from a premise about the relationship between grounds and knowledge to the conclusion about certainty.
  •  186
    The Objectivity of Science
    In Juan Carlos Aguirre-Garcia (ed.), Objectivity in Human Sciences, . forthcoming.
    The notion of objectivity is ambiguous. A distinction is made between three primary notions of objectivity: ontological objectivity, the objectivity of truth and epistemic objectivity. It is suggested that a realist may explain the relationship between the three notions by saying that use of epistemically objective methods stands the best chance of leading to the objective truth about the objective world.
  •  143
    Neither a Truism nor a Triviality: Reply to Grzankowski
    Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 23 (2): 361-365. 2019.
    This is a reply to Alex Grzankowski’s comment on my paper, ‘To Believe is to Believe True’. I argue that one may believe a proposition to be true without possessing the concept of truth. I note that to believe the proposition P to be true is not the same as to believe the proposition ‘P is true’. This avoids the regress highlighted by Grzankowski in which the concept of truth is employed an infinite number of times in a single belief.
  •  392
    Underdetermination in Economics: The Duhem-Quine Thesis
    with K. R. Sawyer and Clive Beed
    Economics and Philosophy 13 (1): 1-23. 1997.
    This paper considers the relevance of the Duhem-Quine thesis in economics. In the introductory discussion which follows, the meaning of the thesis and a brief history of its development are detailed. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the effects of the thesis in four specific and diverse theories in economics, and to illustrate the dependence of testing the theories on a set of auxiliary hypotheses. A general taxonomy of auxiliary hypotheses is provided to demonstrate the confounding of aux…Read more
  •  98
    Kuhn, Coherentism and Perception
    In Pablo Melogno, Hernán Miguel & Leandro Giri (eds.), Perspectives On Kuhn, . forthcoming.
    The paper takes off from the suggestion of Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen that Kuhn’s account of science may be understood in coherentist terms. There are coherentist themes in Kuhn’s philosophy of science. But one crucial element is lacking. Kuhn does not deny the existence of basic beliefs which have a non-doxastic source of justification. Nor does he assert that epistemic justification only derives from inferential relationships between non-basic beliefs. Despite this, the coherentist interpretat…Read more
  •  184
    Relativism in the philosophy of science is widely associated with the work of Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend. Kuhn and Feyerabend espoused views about conceptual change and variation of scientific method that have apparent relativistic implications. Both held that scientific theories or paradigms may be incommensurable due to semantic variation. Two ways that truth may be relative because of semantic incommensurability will be distinguished. Davidson’s criticism of the idea of an untranslat…Read more
  •  289
    This is a survey of theories of scientific method which opens the book "After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method".
  • Introductory discussion of Lakatos's idea of scientific research programmes, and an application to the case-study of continental drift.
  •  63
    Truth and reality in social constructivism
    with Geoffrey Bowker
    Arena Journal 2 233-252. 1993/1994.
    This is a co-authored dialogue which explores epistemological and metaphysical questions raised by a social constructivist approach to science.
  •  191
    Judgement and Rational Theory-Choice
    Methodology and Science 27 (3): 167-182. 1994.
    It is argued that in the absence of an algorithm of theory-choice, a role must be played by deliberative judgement in the process of choosing rationally between theories.
  •  194
    In defence of untranslatability
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (1). 1990.
    This paper addresses criticisms of the concept of untranslatability which Davidson and Putnam have raised against the incommensurability thesis.
  •  49
    This is an Italian translation of a lecture on incommensurability given at the University of Genoa.
  •  117
    Alexander Bird: Thomas Kuhn (review)
    Philosophical Quarterly 52 (209): 654-657. 2002.
    This is a review of Alexander Bird's book on Thomas Kuhn.
  •  57
    This is a short review of Warren Schmaus's Liberty and the Pursuit of Knowledge: Charles Renouvier's Political Philosophy of Science.
  •  170
    To believe is to believe true
    Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 23 (1): 131-136. 2019.
    It is argued that to believe is to believe true. That is, when one believes a proposition one thereby believes the proposition to be true. This is a point about what it is to believe rather than about the aim of belief or the standard of correctness for belief. The point that to believe is to believe true appears to be an analytic truth about the concept of belief. It also appears to be essential to the state of belief that to believe is to believe true. This is not just a contingent fact about …Read more
  •  263
    Bojana Mladenovic: Kuhn's Legacy: Epistemology, Metaphilosophy, and Pragmatism (review)
    Philosophical Review 127 (4): 532-535. 2018.
    This is a book review of Bojana Mladenovic, Kuhn's Legacy: Epistemology, Metaphilosophy, and Pragmatism
  •  160
    Some Reflections on Experimental Incommensurability
    In Lena Soler, Howard Sankey & Paul Hoyningen-Huene (eds.), Rethinking Scientific Change and Theory Comparison, Springer. pp. 341-347. 2008.
    This is a comment on Lena Soler's 'The Incommensurability of Experimental Practices'
  •  16
    This is a book review of Paul Horwich (ed.) World Changes
  •  116
    In Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia, Routledge. pp. 370-373. 2006.
    This is a short introductory discussion of the idea of incommensurability as it is used in the philosophy of science.
  •  57
    Comment on Scientific Objectivity with a Human Face by Professor Holm Tetens
    In Martin Carrier, J. Roggenhoffer, G. Kuppers & Ph Blanchard (eds.), Knowledge and the World: Challenges Beyond the Science Wars, Springer-verlag. pp. 95-98. 2004.
    This is a comment on Professor Holm Tetens' paper, 'Scientific Objectivity with a Human Face'
  •  329
    Scientific method
    In Stathis Psillos & Martin Curd (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science, Routledge. pp. 248-258. 2008.
    This is an introductory overview of theories of scientific method.
  •  119
    What is Scientific Realism?
    Divinatio 12 103-120. 2000.
    This is an introduction to the position of scientific realism, which outlines a number of core doctrines of scientific realism, and indicates a number of optional and non-core doctrine. It also sketches the basic argument for scientific realism, known as the success argument.