•  30
    The approach to expert communities and political representation of non-experts in Harry Collins and Robert Evans’ elective modernism reflects the conviction that experts are not representative of ordinary citizens. I use an analysis of aspects of representation and the argument from inductive risk to argue that experts can be seen as representative of non-experts, when we understand representation as resemblance based on shared social perspectives and acknowledge the inevitable involvement of su…Read more
  •  34
    How to think about shared norms and pluralism without circularity: A reply to Anna Leuschner
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 75 51-56. 2019.
    Anna Leuschner argues that there is problematic circularity in Helen Longino's approach that postulates the existence of some shared norms as a necessary precondition for well-functioning pluralistic communities. As an alternative, Leuschner proposes to approach the establishing of more pluralistic communities through political means on a case-by-case basis, taking relevant epistemic and political factors into account. In this paper, I argue that there is an alternative understanding of norms th…Read more
  •  431
    “Knowing Things in Common”: Sheila Jasanoff and Helen Longino on the Social Nature of Knowledge
    Acta Baltica Historiae Et Philosophiae Scientiarum 1 (2): 26-37. 2013.
    In her analysis of the politics of biotechnology, Sheila Jasanoff argued that modern democracy cannot be understood without an analysis of the ways knowledge is created and used in society. She suggested calling these ways to “know things in common” civic epistemologies. Jasanoff thus approached knowledge as fundamentally social. The focus on the social nature of knowledge allows drawing parallels with some developments in philosophy of science. In the first part of the paper, I juxtapose Jasano…Read more
  •  118
    Supervision, Mentorship and Peer Networks: How Estonian Early Career Researchers Get (or Fail to Get) Support
    with Katrin Velbaum, Endla Lõhkivi, Kadri Simm, and Kristin Kokkov
    RT. A Journal on Research Policy and Evaluation 6 (1): 01-16. 2018.
    The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or eve…Read more
  •  223
    Supervision and Early Career Work Experiences of Estonian Humanities Researchers under the Conditions of Project-based Funding
    with Pille Põiklik, Endla Lõhkivi, and Katrin Velbaum
    Higher Education Policy 27 (4). 2014.
    We analyze a series of interviews with Estonian humanities researchers to explore topics related to the beginning of academic careers and the relationships with supervisors and mentors. We show how researchers strive to have meaningful relationships and produce what they consider quality research in the conditions of a system that is very strongly oriented towards internationalization and project-based funding, where their efforts are compromised by a lack of policies helping them establish a st…Read more
  •  571
    On the Social Nature of Objectivity: Helen Longino and Justin Biddle
    Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (3): 449-463. 2015.
    According to Helen Longino, objectivity is necessarily social as it depends on critical interactions in com- munity. Justin Biddle argues that Longino’s account presupposes individuals that are completely open to any criticism; as such individuals are in principle able to criticise their beliefs on their own, Longino’s account is not really social. In the first part of my paper I argue that even for completely open individuals, criticism for maintaining objectivity is only possible in community.…Read more
  •  102
    Epistemic Injustice in Research Evaluation: A Cultural Analysis of the Humanities and Physics in Estonia
    with Endla Lõhkivi and Katrin Velbaum
    Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2): 108-132. 2012.
    This paper explores the issue of epistemic injustice in research evaluation. Through an analysis of the disciplinary cultures of physics and humanities, we attempt to identify some aims and values specific to the disciplinary areas. We suggest that credibility is at stake when the cultural values and goals of a discipline contradict those presupposed by official evaluation standards. Disciplines that are better aligned with the epistemic assumptions of evaluation standards appear to produce more…Read more
  •  1081
    Philip Kitcher argued that the freedom to pursue one's version of the good life is the main aim of Mill's argument for freedom of expression. According to Kitcher, in certain scientific fields, political and epistemological asymmetries bias research toward conclusions that threaten this most important freedom of underprivileged groups. Accordingly, Kitcher claimed that there are Millian grounds for limiting freedom of inquiry in these fields to protect the freedom of the underprivileged. -/- I e…Read more
  •  429
    Philosophy of science is showing an increasing interest in the social aspects and the social organisation of science—the ways social values and social interactions and structures play a role in the creation of knowledge and the ways this role should be taken into account in the organisation of science and science policy. My thesis explores a number of issues related to this theme. I argue that a prominent approach to the social organisation of science—Philip Kitcher’s well-ordered science—runs i…Read more
  •  113
    The aim of the paper is to discuss some possible connections between philosophical proposals about the social organisation of science and developments towards a greater democratisation of science policy. I suggest that there are important similarities between one approach to objectivity in philosophy of science—Helen Longino’s account of objectivity as freedom from individual biases achieved through interaction of a variety of perspectives—and some ideas about the epistemic benefits of wider rep…Read more