•  94
      Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method capable of transiently modulating neural excitability. Depending on the stimulation parameters information processing in the brain can be either enhanced or disrupted. This way the contribution of different brain areas involved in mental processes can be studied, allowing a functional decomposition of cognitive behavior both in the temporal and spatial domain, hence providing a functional resolution of brain/mind processes. The aim of the pre…Read more
  •  88
    The clinical introduction of medical devices often occurs with relatively little oversight, regulation and (long-term) follow-up. Some recent controversies underscore the weaknesses of the current regime, such as the complications surrounding the metal-on-metal hip implants and the scandal surrounding the global breast implant scare of silicone implants made by France's Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) Company. The absence of national registries hampered the collection of reliable information on the …Read more
  •  59
    Can we justify eliminating coercive measures in psychiatry?
    with E. J. D. Prinsen
    Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (1): 69-73. 2009.
    The practice of coercive measures in psychiatry is controversial. Although some have suggested that it may be acceptable if patients are a danger to others or to themselves, others committed themselves to eliminate it. Ethical, legal and clinical considerations become more complex when the mental incapacity is temporary and when the coercive measures serve to restore autonomy. We discuss these issues, addressing the conflict between autonomy and beneficence/non-maleficence, human dignity, the ex…Read more
  •  44
    Extending the global workspace theory to emotion: Phenomenality without access
    with J. L. Schutter
    Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3): 539-549. 2004.
    Recent accounts on the global workspace theory suggest that consciousness involves transient formations of functional connections in thalamo-cortico-cortical networks. The level of connectivity in these networks is argued to determine the state of consciousness. Emotions are suggested to play a role in shaping consciousness, but their involvement in the global workspace theory remains elusive. In the present study, the role of emotion in the neural workspace theory of consciousness was scrutiniz…Read more
  •  44
    The unfeasibility of requests for euthanasia in advance directives
    Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (5): 447-451. 2004.
    In April 2002 a new law regarding euthanasia came into effect in the Netherlands. This law holds that euthanasia remains a criminal offence unless it is performed by a physician who acts according to six specified rules of due care and reports the case to a review committee. The six rules of due care are similar to those of the previous regulation and are largely based on jurisprudence. Completely new, however, is the article concerning a competent patient who has written an advance directive re…Read more
  •  43
    Ties That Grind? Corroborating a Typology of Social Contracting Problems
    with Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens and Muel Kaptein
    Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3): 235-252. 2004.
    Contractualism conceives of firm-stakeholder relations as cooperative schemes for mutual benefit. In essence, contractualism holds that these schemes, as well as the normative principles that guide and constrain them, are ultimately ratified by the consent and endorsement of those subject to them. This paper explores the empirical validity of a contractualist perspective on firm-stakeholder relations. It first develops a typology of firm-stakeholder contracting problems. It subsequently confront…Read more
  •  38
    Dutch experience of monitoring active ending of life for newborns
    with H. M. Buiting, M. A. C. Karelse, H. A. A. Brouwers, B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, and A. van Der Heide
    Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (4): 234-237. 2010.
    Introduction In 2007, a national review committee was instituted in The Netherlands to review cases of active ending of life for newborns. It was expected that 15–20 cases would be reported. To date, however, only one case has been reported to this committee. Reporting is essential to obtain societal control and transparency; the possible explanations for this lack of reporting were therefore explored. Methods Data on end-of-life decision-making were scrutinised from Dutch nation-wide studies (1…Read more
  •  37
    Medical decision making in scarcity situations
    Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2): 207-211. 2004.
    The issue of the allocation of resources in health care is here to stay. The goal of this study was to explore the views of physicians on several topics that have arisen in the debate on the allocation of scarce resources and to compare these with the views of policy makers. We asked physicians and policy makers to participate in an interview about their practices and opinions concerning factors playing a role in decision making for patients in different age groups. Both physicians and policy ma…Read more
  •  34
    Disclosure of Risks and Uncertainties Are Especially Vital in Light of Regenerative Medicine
    with S. L. Niemansburg, M. G. J. L. Habets, and A. L. Bredenoord
    American Journal of Bioethics 14 (4): 14-16. 2014.
    No abstract
  •  32
    Dutch criteria of due care for physician-assisted dying in medical practice: a physician perspective
    with H. M. Buiting, J. K. M. Gevers, J. A. C. Rietjens, B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, P. J. van der Maas, and A. van der Heide
    Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9). 2008.
    Introduction: The Dutch Euthanasia Act states that euthanasia is not punishable if the attending physician acts in accordance with the statutory due care criteria. These criteria hold that: there should be a voluntary and well-considered request, the patient’s suffering should be unbearable and hopeless, the patient should be informed about their situation, there are no reasonable alternatives, an independent physician should be consulted, and the method should be medically and technically appro…Read more
  •  32
    The justificatory power of moral experience
    with G. J. M. W. van Thiel
    Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (4): 234-237. 2009.
    A recurrent issue in the vast amount of literature on reasoning models in ethics is the role and nature of moral intuitions. In this paper, we start from the view that people who work and live in a certain moral practice usually possess specific moral wisdom. If we manage to incorporate their moral intuitions in ethical reasoning, we can arrive at judgements and (modest) theories that grasp a moral experience that generally cannot be found outside the practice. Reflective equilibrium (RE) provid…Read more
  •  25
    Terminal sedation: source of a restless ethical debate
    Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (4): 187. 2007.
    Slow euthanasia or a good palliative intervention?There are many ways in which doctors influence the circumstances and/or the timing of a patient’s death. Some of these are accepted as normal medical practice—for instance, when a disproportional treatment is forgone, others are considered tolerable only under strict conditions or even intolerable, such as non-voluntary active euthanasia. A relatively new phenomenon in the ethical discussion on end-of-life decisions is terminal sedation. Terminal…Read more
  •  24
    Palliative sedation: not just normal medical practice. Ethical reflections on the Royal Dutch Medical Association's guideline on palliative sedation
    with Rien Janssens and Guy A. M. Widdershoven
    Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11): 664-668. 2012.
    The main premise of the Royal Dutch Medical Association's (RDMA) guideline on palliative sedation is that palliative sedation, contrary to euthanasia, is normal medical practice. Although we do not deny the ethical distinctions between euthanasia and palliative sedation, we will critically analyse the guideline's argumentation strategy with which euthanasia is demarcated from palliative sedation. First, we will analyse the guideline's main premise, which entails that palliative sedation is norma…Read more
  •  24
    Assistance in dying for older people without a serious medical condition who have a wish to die: a national cross-sectional survey
    with Natasja J. H. Raijmakers, Agnes van der Heide, Pauline S. C. Kouwenhoven, Ghislaine J. M. W. van Thiel, and Judith A. C. Rietjens
    Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2): 145-150. 2015.
  •  24
    Euthanasia: Not Just for Rich Countries
    In Ronald M. Green, Aine Donovan & Steven A. Jauss (eds.), Global Bioethics, Oxford University Press. 2008.
  •  19
    Cognitive reactivity as outcome and working mechanism of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurrently depressed patients in remission
    with M. B. Cladder-Micus, A. R. T. Donders, J. Spijker, J. N. Vrijsen, and A. E. M. Speckens
    Cognition and Emotion 32 (2): 371-378. 2017.
    ABSTRACTMajor depressive disorder is a prevalent condition with high relapse rates. There is evidence that cognitive reactivity is an important vulnerability factor for the recurrence of depression. Mindfulness-based interventions are designed to reduce relapse rates, with cognitive reactivity as one of the proposed working mechanisms. In a randomised controlled trial we compared the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with treatment-as-usual on cognitive reactivity in recurrently depr…Read more
  •  17
    How and When Does Consent Bias Research?
    with R. H. H. Groenwold and R. van der Graaf
    American Journal of Bioethics 13 (4). 2013.
    No abstract
  •  17
    (Hard ernst) 126–132 corrigendum
    with Erik J. Olsson, Believing More, and U. Kriegel
    Erkenntnis 57 (1): 457-458. 2002.
  •  15
    Phase IV research: innovation in need of ethics
    with G. J. M. W. van Thiel
    Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6): 415-416. 2008.
    Worries about safety of approved drugs have pushed post registration research to become the fastest growing drug research phase. Until recently, phase IV studies were mainly conducted for marketing purposes and run much like a phase III trial—at institutions with experienced investigators and a list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Innovative phase IV studies involve ordinary physicians in research naïve communities. This brings ethical issues familiar to medical research into clinical pract…Read more
  •  14
    Rethinking Organizational Ethics: A Plea for Pluralism
    with Ben Wempe and Theo van Willigenburg
    Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4): 387-395. 2004.
    This paper challenges a pervasive, if not always explicit assumption of the present state of theorising in business ethics. This is the idea that a workable theory of organizational ethics must provide a unified perspective on its subject matter. In this paper we will sketch the broad outlines of an alternative understanding of business ethics, which focuses on constraints on corporate conduct that cannot reasonably be rejected. These constraints stem from at least three different levels or sphe…Read more
  •  13
    Teaching domain-specific skills before peer assessment skills is superior to teaching them simultaneously
    with M. J. van Zundert, K. D. Könings, and D. M. A. Sluijsmans
    Educational Studies 38 (5): 541-557. 2012.
    Instruction in peer assessment of complex task performance may cause high cognitive load, impairing learning. A stepwise instructional strategy aimed at reducing cognitive load was investigated by comparing it with a combined instructional strategy in an experiment with 128 secondary school students (mean age 14.0?years; 45.2% male) with the between-subjects factor instruction (stepwise, combined). In the stepwise condition, study tasks in Phase 1 were domain-specific and study tasks in Phase 2 …Read more
  •  11
    A Contagious Living Fluid: Objectification and Assemblage in the History of Virology
    Theory, Culture and Society 19 (5-6): 107-124. 2002.
    This article deals with the birth of `the virus' as an object of technoscientific analysis. The aim is to discuss the process of objectification of pathogen virulence in virological and medical discourses. Through a short excursion into the history of modern virology, it will be argued that far from being a matter of fact, pathogen virulence had to be `produced', for example in petri-dishes, test-kits and hyper-real signification-practices. The now commonly accepted objective status of `the viru…Read more
  •  9
    Winning at a Losing Game? Side-Effects of Perceived Tournament Promotion Incentives in Audit Firms
    with Jorien L. Pruijssers and Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens
    Journal of Business Ethics 162 (1): 149-167. 2020.
    Tournament-like promotion systems are the default in audit firms, which are generally internally owned professional partnerships. While awarding promotions in a contest-like fashion stimulates contestants’ motivation and productivity, it may also upset an organizations’ ethical climate and trigger ethically adverse behaviors. Since nearly all research on promotion tournaments in management has been conducted in public firms, little is known about how these incentive systems operate in profession…Read more
  •  8
    The Effect of Instructing the Structural Aspect of Texts
    with N. A. Broer, C. A. J. Aarnoutse, and F. K. Kieviet
    Educational Studies 28 (3): 213-238. 2002.
    This paper reports on a study of 354 pupils in the top form of Dutch primary schools spread over 18 classes and two research conditions . The experimental condition involved teaching the recognition of two text structures, the classification structure and the causation structure. Pupils were also taught how to make schematics in which the main points of the text are arranged in line with the text structure. The study shows that pupils of around 12 years old are able to recognize the text structu…Read more
  •  7
    Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2-3): 307-314. 2006.
    Network is a device for organizing and conceptualizing non-linear complexity. Networks defy narrative, chronology and thus also genealogy because they entail a multiplicity of traces. Networks problematize boundaries and centrality but intensify our ability to think in terms of flows and simultaneity. As a concept, network has been highly conducive to theorizing phenomena and processes such as globalization, digital media , speed, symbiosis and complexity. This in turn enables us to rethink what…Read more
  •  7
    Philosophy of Chemistry
    Erkenntnis 56 (2): 252-256. 2002.
  •  6
    Biblical quotations in Faustus’s Capitula
    Hts Theological Studies 69 (1). 2013.
  •  6
    Correction to: Winning at a Losing Game? Side-Effects of Perceived Tournament Promotion Incentives in Audit Firms
    with Jorien L. Pruijssers and Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens
    Journal of Business Ethics 162 (1): 169-169. 2020.
    The name of the third author was incorrect in the initial online publication. The original article has been corrected.