Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
  •  62
    Rational Noncompliance with Prescribed Medical Treatment
    with Douglas O. Stewart
    Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (3): 277-290. 2010.
    Patient noncompliance with physician prescriptions, especially in nonsymptomatic chronic diseases, is frequently characterized in the literature as harmful and economically costly (Miller 1997).1 Nancy Houston Miller views patient noncompliance as harmful because noncompliance can result in continued or new health problems leading to hospital admissions. Further, she places the annual monetary cost of noncompliance at $100 billion.Patient noncompliance with prescribed treatment is considered the…Read more
  •  60
    Neuroethics and the Ethical Parity Principle
    with Paul J. Ford
    Neuroethics 7 (3): 317-325. 2014.
    Neil Levy offers the most prominent moral principles that are specifically and exclusively designed to apply to neuroethics. His two closely related principles, labeled as versions of the ethical parity principle , are intended to resolve moral concerns about neurological modification and enhancement [1]. Though EPP is appealing and potentially illuminating, we reject the first version and substantially modify the second. Since his first principle, called EPP , is dependent on the contention tha…Read more
  •  52
    Reviving Brain Death: A Functionalist View (review)
    with Samuel H. LiPuma
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3): 383-392. 2013.
    Recently both whole brain death (WBD) and higher brain death (HBD) have come under attack. These attacks, we argue, are successful, leaving supporters of both views without a firm foundation. This state of affairs has been described as “the death of brain death.” Returning to a cardiopulmonary definition presents problems we also find unacceptable. Instead, we attempt to revive brain death by offering a novel and more coherent standard of death based on the permanent cessation of mental processi…Read more
  •  42
    An economic theory of patient decision-making
    with Douglas O. Stewart
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (3): 153-164. 2005.
    Patient autonomy, as exercised in the informed consent process, is a central concern in bioethics. The typical bioethicist's analysis of autonomy centers on decisional capacity—finding the line between autonomy and its absence. This approach leaves unexplored the structure of reasoning behind patient treatment decisions. To counter that approach, we present a microeconomic theory of patient decision-making regarding the acceptable level of medical treatment from the patient's perspective. We sho…Read more
  •  37
    Justice and Reverse Discrimination
    Teaching Philosophy 5 (2): 145-149. 1982.
  •  36
    Putting pressure on promises
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 30 (2): 45-58. 1992.
  •  33
    Principlism and moral dilemmas: a new principle
    Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2): 101-105. 2005.
    Moral conflicts occur in theories that involve more than one principle. I examine basic ways of dealing with moral dilemmas in medical ethics and in ethics generally, and propose a different approach based on a principle I call the "mutuality principle". It is offered as an addition to Tom Beauchamp and James Childress' principlism. The principle calls for the mutual enhancement of basic moral values. After explaining the principle and its strengths, I test it by way of an examination of three r…Read more
  •  33
    “Toward an Adequate Theory of Applied Ethics”
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (4): 45-51. 1989.
  •  33
    with Douglas O. Stewart
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (3): 137-138. 2006.
  •  31
    Balancing in ethical deliberation: Superior to specification and casuistry
    with Paul J. Ford
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (5). 2006.
    Approaches to clinical ethics dilemmas that rely on basic principles or rules are difficult to apply because of vagueness and conflict among basic values. In response, casuistry rejects the use of basic values, and specification produces a large set of specified rules that are presumably easily applicable. Balancing is a method employed to weigh the relative importance of different and conflicting values in application. We argue against casuistry and specification, claiming that balancing is sup…Read more
  •  28
    Justice and Economic Distribution
    Teaching Philosophy 3 (2): 243-244. 1979.
  •  26
    On Making and Keeping Promises
    Journal of Applied Philosophy 13 (2): 199-208. 1996.
  •  24
    The Immorality of Limiting Growth
    Teaching Philosophy 6 (4): 402-403. 1983.
  •  22
    Hastings Center Report 39 (4): 12-12. 2009.
  •  22
    Expanding autonomy; contracting informed consent
    with Douglas O. Stewart
    American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2). 2009.
    No abstract
  •  19
    In defense of live kidney donation
    American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4). 2004.
    This Article does not have an abstract
  •  19
    Justice: Simple theories, complex applications
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (1): 31-38. 1987.
  •  19
    Dementia, Advance Directives, and Discontinuity of Personality
    with Samuel H. Lipuma
    Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (4): 674-685. 2016.
  •  18
    Substantive equality: A basic value
    Journal of Social Philosophy 32 (2). 2001.
  •  18
    Coherence and applied ethics
    Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (3). 1997.
  •  17
    Peirce's Concept of Community: Its Development & Change
    Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 7 (1). 1971.
  •  17
    A Functionalist View of Brain Death
    with Samuel LiPuma
    American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8): 19-20. 2014.
    No abstract
  •  16
    A fault in the utilitarian theory of conduct
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 13 (3): 275-279. 1975.
    Utilitarians take an uncritical attitude toward the sort of individual claims they seek to aggregate. In this way they cannot account for an individual's valid claim against a policy which actually maximizes aggregate satisfaction. We thus claim that utilitarianism properly functions only after conflicting claims have been adjudicated; consequently, Utilitarianism properly maximizes the satisfaction of claims judged to be valid. In such a program, Utilitarianism ceases to be considered a part of…Read more
  •  14
    The mutuality of liberty, equality, and fraternity
    Journal of Social Philosophy 17 (3): 7-12. 1986.
  •  14
  •  13
    Is There an Ethical Obligation to Disclose Controversial Risk? A Question From the ACCORD Trial
    with Paul J. Ford, Dana J. Patton, and Douglas O. Stewart
    American Journal of Bioethics 14 (4): 4-10. 2014.
    Researchers designing a clinical trial may be aware of disputed evidence of serious risks from previous studies. These researchers must decide whether and how to describe these risks in their model informed consent document. They have an ethical obligation to provide fully informed consent, but does this obligation include notice of controversial evidence? With ACCORD as an example, we describe a framework and criteria that make clear the conditions requiring inclusion of important controversial…Read more