•  319
    Environmental Security and Just Causes for War
    Almanac: Discourses of Ethics 10 (1): 47-54. 2015.
    This article asks whether a country that suffers from serious environmental problems caused by another country could have a just cause for a defensive war? Danish philosopher Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen has argued that under certain conditions extreme poverty may give a just cause for a country to defensive war, if that poverty is caused by other countries. This raises the question whether the victims of environmental damages could also have a similar right to self-defense. Although the article con…Read more
  •  134
    On political conspiracy theories
    Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2): 185-201. 2008.
  •  102
    In this article I shall undertake a preliminary exploration of the notion of second best. I shall follow a three-step strategy. First, I shall introduce some applications of the theorem of the second best in different fields of philosophy and social sciences. Secondly, I shall make several conceptual distinctions related to the theorem. I aim to show that there are certain theoretical results that are similar but not identical to the theorem of the second best, and that the notion of second best…Read more
  •  77
    The ethics of conspiracy theorizing
    Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4): 457-468. 2009.
  •  77
    Coercive population policies, procreative freedom, and morality
    Philosophy and Geography 4 (1). 2001.
    I shall briefly evaluate the common claim that ethically acceptable population policies must let individuals to decide freely on the number of their children. I shall ask, first, what exactly is the relation between population policies that we find intuitively appealing, on the one hand, and population policies that maximize procreative freedom, on the other, and second, what is the relation between population policies that we tend to reject on moral grounds, on the one hand, and population poli…Read more
  •  71
    Brain imaging and privacy
    Neuroethics 3 (1): 5-12. 2010.
    I will argue that the fairly common assumption that brain imaging may compromise people’s privacy in an undesirable way only if moral crimes are committed is false. Sometimes persons’ privacy is compromised because of failures of privacy. A normal emotional reaction to failures of privacy is embarrassment and shame, not moral resentment like in the cases of violations of right to privacy. I will claim that if (1) neuroimaging will provide all kinds of information about persons’ inner life and no…Read more
  •  66
    Pogge on global poverty
    Journal of Global Ethics 2 (1). 2006.
    Thomas Pogge has recently defended additional ways in which to eradicate poverty from the developing world. In this article, Pogge's argument is discussed. First the premises on which Pogge relies are summarized and the logic of 'international borrowing privilege' introduced. Then it is argued that Pogge's solutions to the poverty problem would face similar difficulties to many other solutions - that is, in order to work properly they all must gain extensive international support and political w…Read more
  •  60
    When a Person Feels that She Is Guilty and Believes that She Is Not Guilty
    The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9 149-152. 2006.
    Guilt feelings are an important part of our emotional life that is relevant to moral philosophy, and guilt feelings raise many theoretically interesting questions. One such question is the problem of how it is possible that sometimes people seem to feel guilty because of an act they have committed even if they believe that the act is not wrong and that it does not have any moral costs. A person raised in a religious family may have been taught that going to the theater is wrong, and even if she …Read more
  •  53
    The social concept of disease
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (4). 1996.
    In the discussion of such social questions as how should alcoholics be treated by society? and what kind of people are responsible in the face of the law?, is disease a value-free or value-laden notion, a natural or a normative one? It seems, for example, that by the utterance alcoholism should be classified as a disease we mean something like the following: the condition called alcoholism is similar in morally relevant respects to conditions that we uncontroversially label diseases, and therefo…Read more
  •  49
    Are there Alternative Methods in Ethics?
    Grazer Philosophische Studien 52 (1): 173-189. 1996.
    Do all methods of moral justification resemble the method of reflective equilibrium in presupposing that moral judgment's being justified depends at least in part on its being appropriately related to our actual substantial moral views? Can a moral judgment be justified without such a presupposition? I shall distinguish three versions of the no-option argument According to any version of the no-option argument, there is certain fact which characterizes moral theories, and that fact implies that …Read more
  •  46
    Rawls and international justice
    Philosophia 25 (1-4): 163-189. 1997.
  •  45
    On irrational guilt
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (5). 2005.
    A person raised in a religious family may have been taught that going to the theater is not allowed, and even if he has rejected this taboo years ago, he still feels guilty when attending theater. These kinds of cases may not be rare, but they are strange. Indeed, one may wonder how they are even possible. This is why an explanation is needed, and in my paper I aim to give such an explanation. In particular, I will first provide a brief review of the explanations of irrational guilt that are com…Read more
  •  42
    Burden of Proof Rules in Social Criticism
    Argumentation 11 (4): 463-477. 1997.
    The article discusses burden of proof rules in social criticism. By social criticism I mean an argumentative situation in which an opponent publicly argues against certain social practices; the examples I consider are discrimination on the basis of species and discrimination on the basis of one's nationality. I argue that burden of proof rules assumed by those who defend discrimination are somewhat dubious. In social criticism, there are no shared values which would uncontroversially determine w…Read more
  •  42
    The Ethics of Alien Attitudes
    The Monist 95 (3): 511-532. 2012.
  •  41
  •  35
    This is the first collection of essays of philosophical thanatology that explicitly connects the metaphysical and the ethical questions of death, including some bioethical questions. The volume has four sections, and the discussion moves from historical and theoretical problems to practical issues of bioethics. However, as the editor of the book, James Stacey Taylor, has surely intended, the practical questions discussed are closely related to traditional metaphysical problems, most notably to t…Read more
  •  34
    Global justice and the logic of the burden of proof
    Metaphilosophy 36 (1-2): 228-239. 2005.
  •  34
  •  32
    Demands for Forgiveness
    Heythrop Journal 53 (5): 724-730. 2012.
  •  29
    The topic of the paper is the justness of the so-called global redistributive wars — wars whose prime purpose would be the correction of global economic and power structures that are said to cause suffering in poor countries. My aim is to comment on Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen’s argument concerning the implications of Thomas Pogge’s theory of global poverty. Pogge has argued that affluent coun-tries uphold global institutional structures that have a significant causal role in leading to the poverty…Read more
  •  29
    Ratio, EarlyView.
  •  27
    On the presumption of equality
    Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 22 (7): 809-822. 2019.
  •  26
    Privacy and Self-Presentation
    Res Publica 23 (2): 213-226. 2017.
    It has often been argued that one of the reasons why we should value privacy is that it enables self-presentation and impression management. According to this approach, it is valuable to be able to govern the impression one gives, as the capacity to govern impressions is an instrument by which people take care of their various social relationships. In this paper I will take a closer look at that approach on privacy, with specific reference to the alleged threats to privacy created by brain imagi…Read more
  •  26
    Moderate Conventionalism and Cultural Appropriation
    Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 81-88. 2019.
    Cultural appropriation, also called cultural borrowing, has been the topic of much discussion in recent years. Roughly speaking, cultural appropriation happens when someone outside of a cultural or ethnic group takes or uses some object that is characteristic or in some way important to the group without the group’s permission. Individuals who find cultural appropriation unproblematic have often argued that if we express moral criticism of the use of traditional Sami outfits by non-Sami, then we…Read more
  •  21
    On Political Conspiracy Theories &ast
    Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2): 185-201. 2009.
  •  19
    Genes and Morality: New Essays
    with Veikko Launis and Juhani Pietarinen
    Rodopi. 1999.
    Most public discussion has focused on those effects of genetic research that are considered in some way unwanted or unpleasant. For example, there has been much debate concerning the risks and the ethical appropriateness of genetic screening, gene therapy, and agricultural applications based on genetic techniques. It often claimed that genetic research may cause new problems such as genetic discrimination, stigmatization, environmental risks, or mistreatment of animals. Genes and Morality: New E…Read more