I am interested in how societies become numerate and literate by using and modifying material forms over generations of collaborative effort, the effect this elaborational mechanism has on conceptual content, how material forms become increasingly refined to elicit specific behavioral and psychological responses, and what this might augur about the future of human cognition. I view cognition as embodied, embedded, extended, enacted, and evolving (5E). I have also written on how Neandertal cognition differed from that of our ancestors, as well as the literary works of Jane Austen.