•  40
    Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry
    with Herbert W. Harris
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2): 127-153. 1992.
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even r…Read more
  •  4
    Biology and Epistemology: Emerging Themes
    In Richard Creath & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and Epistemology, Cambridge University Press. pp. 287. 2000.
  •  7
    Of Medicine
    In Merrilee H. Salmon (ed.), Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Hackett. pp. 310. 1992.
  •  24
    Alzheimer Testing at Silver Years
    with A. Mathew Thomas, Gene Cohen, Robert M. Cook-Deegan, Joan O'sullivan, Stephen G. Post, Allen D. Roses, and Ronald M. Green
    Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3): 294-307. 1998.
    Early last year, the GenEthics Consortium (GEC) of the Washington Metropolitan Area convened at George Washington University to consider a complex case about genetic testing for Alzheimer disease (AD). The GEC consists of scientists, bioethicists, lawyers, genetic counselors, and consumers from a variety of institutions and affiliations. Four of the 8 co-authors of this paper delivered presentations on the case. Supplemented by additional ethical and legal observations, these presentations form …Read more
  •  32
    Logic of discovery and justification in regulatory genetics
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 4 (4): 349-385. 1974.
    In the above pages I have sketched a history of the genesis and comparative evaluation of the repressor model of genetic regulation of enzyme induction. I have not attempted in this article to carry out an analysis of the more scientifically interesting fully developed Jacob-Monod operon theory of genetic regulations but such an analysis of the operon theory would not, I believe, involve any additional logical or epistemological features than have been discussed above. I have argued that the abo…Read more
  •  45
    Genes, behavior, and developmental emergentism: One process, indivisible?
    Philosophy of Science 65 (2): 209-252. 1998.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets cap…Read more
  •  108
    In Quest for Scientific Psychiatry: Toward Bridging the Explanatory Gap
    with Drozdstoj Stoyanov and Peter Machamer
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (3): 261-273. 2013.
    The contemporary epistemic status of mental health disciplines does not allow the cross validation of mental disorders among various genetic markers, biochemical pathway or mechanisms, and clinical assessments in neuroscience explanations. We attempt to provide a meta-empirical analysis of the contemporary status of the cross-disciplinary issues existing between neuro-biology and psychopathology. Our case studies take as an established medical mode an example cross validation between biological …Read more
  •  81
    This article considers claims that biology should seek general theories similar to those found in physics but argues for an alternative framework for biological theories as collections of prototypical interlevel models that can be extrapolated by analogy to different organisms. This position is exemplified in the development of the Hodgkin‐Huxley giant squid model for action potentials, which uses equations in specialized ways. This model is viewed as an “emergent unifier.” Such unifiers, which …Read more
  •  114
    Reduction: the Cheshire cat problem and a return to roots
    Synthese 151 (3): 377-402. 2006.
    In this paper, I propose two theses, and then examine what the consequences of those theses are for discussions of reduction and emergence. The first thesis is that what have traditionally been seen as robust, reductions of one theory or one branch of science by another more fundamental one are a largely a myth. Although there are such reductions in the physical sciences, they are quite rare, and depend on special requirements. In the biological sciences, these prima facie sweeping reductions fa…Read more
  •  85
    Model organisms and behavioral genetics: A rejoinder
    Philosophy of Science 65 (2): 276-288. 1998.
    In this rejoinder to the three preceding comments, I provide some additional philosophical warrant for the biomedical sciences' focus on model organisms. I then relate the inquiries on model systems to the concept of 'deep homology', and indicate that the issues that appear to divide my commentators and myself are in part empirical ones. I cite recent work on model organisms, and especially C. elegans that supports my views. Finally, I briefly readdress some of the issues raised by Developmental…Read more
  •  22
    Interactions among Theory, Experiment, and Technology in Molecular Biology
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994. 1994.
    This article examines how a molecular "solution" to an important biological problem-how is antibody diversity generated? was obtained in the 1970s. After the primarily biological clonal selection theory (CST) was accepted by 1967, immunologists developed several different contrasting theories to complete the SCST. To choose among these theories, immunology had to turn to the new molecular biology, first to nucleic acid hybridization and then to recombinant DNA technology. The research programs o…Read more
  •  130
    Ethical problems in clinical trials
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (4): 297-315. 1986.
  •  64
    Theory structure, reduction, and disciplinary integration in biology
    Biology and Philosophy 8 (3): 319-347. 1993.
    This paper examines the nature of theory structure in biology and considers the implications of those theoretical structures for theory reduction. An account of biological theories as interlevel prototypes embodying causal sequences, and related to each other by strong analogies, is presented, and examples from the neurosciences are provided to illustrate these middle-range theories. I then go on to discuss several modifications of Nagel''s classical model of theory reduction, and indicate at wh…Read more
  •  2
  •  31
    Theory change in immunology part II: The clonal selection theory
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2). 1992.
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belie…Read more
  •  47
    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a tiny worm that has become the focus of a large number of worldwide research projects examining its genetics, development, neuroscience, and behavior. Recently several groups of investigators have begun to tie together the behavior of the organism and the underlying genes, neural circuits, and molecular processes implemented in those circuits. Behavior is quintessentially organismal--it is the organism as a whole that moves and mates--but the explanations …Read more
  •  52
    Paradigm changes in organ transplantation: A journey toward selflessness?
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (5): 425-440. 1998.
  • Logic of Discovery and Diagnosis in Medicine (edited book)
    University of California Press. 1985.
  •  53
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2): 93-100. 1981.
  •  21
    The challenge of psychiatric nosology and diagnosis
    with Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer, and Rayito Rivera-Hernández
    Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3): 704-709. 2012.
  •  35
    Theories, models, and equations in systems biology
    In Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.), Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations, Elsevier. pp. 145--162. 2007.
  •  23
    Assessing the normative status of concepts of health and disease involves one in questions regarding the relationship between fact and value. Some have argued that Christopher Boorse's conception of health and disease lacks such a valuational element because it cannot account for types of harms which, while disvalued, do not have evolutionarily dysfunctional consequences. I take Boorse's account and incorporate some Humean-like sociobiological assumptions in order to respond to this challenge. T…Read more
  •  18
    Response to Michael Ruse
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (3): 317-319. 1995.
  •  1
    Medicine, philosophy of
    with H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr
    In Craig Edward (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge. pp. 264-269. 1998.