University of Leeds
School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science
PhD, 2013
Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
Areas of Specialization
Applied Ethics
  •  352
    Just Surveillance? Towards a Normative Theory of Surveillance
    Surveillance and Society 12 (1): 142-153. 2014.
    Despite recent growth in surveillance capabilities there has been little discussion regarding the ethics of surveillance. Much of the research that has been carried out has tended to lack a coherent structure or fails to address key concerns. I argue that the just war tradition should be used as an ethical framework which is applicable to surveillance, providing the questions which should be asked of any surveillance operation. In this manner, when considering whether to employ surveillance, one…Read more
  •  212
    There is a long-running debate as to whether privacy is a matter of control or access. This has become more important following revelations made by Edward Snowden in 2013 regarding the collection of vast swathes of data from the Internet by signals intelligence agencies such as NSA and GCHQ. The nature of this collection is such that if the control account is correct then there has been a significant invasion of people's privacy. If, though, the access account is correct then there has not been …Read more
  •  210
    An Eye for an Eye: Proportionality and Surveillance
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (3): 529-548. 2015.
    It is often claimed that surveillance should be proportionate, but it is rarely made clear exactly what proportionate surveillance would look like beyond an intuitive sense of an act being excessive. I argue that surveillance should indeed be proportionate and draw on Thomas Hurka’s work on proportionality in war to inform the debate on surveillance. After distinguishing between the proportionality of surveillance per se, and surveillance as a particular act, I deal with objections to using prop…Read more
  •  157
    Unblinking eyes: the ethics of automating surveillance
    Ethics and Information Technology 14 (2): 151-167. 2012.
    In this paper I critique the ethical implications of automating CCTV surveillance. I consider three modes of CCTV with respect to automation: manual, fully automated, and partially automated. In each of these I examine concerns posed by processing capacity, prejudice towards and profiling of surveilled subjects, and false positives and false negatives. While it might seem as if fully automated surveillance is an improvement over the manual alternative in these areas, I demonstrate that this is n…Read more
  •  72
    Being Watched: The Ethics of Targeted Surveillance
    The Philosophers' Magazine 63 84-90. 2013.
    . There is a moral question at the heart of this issue as to what actions are justified for a democratic government in the arena of surveillance. In particular, I want to look here at whether untargeted surveillance, such as the collecting of the Verizon call records, is justified.
  •  26
    Surveillance Ethics
    In James Fieser & Bradley Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, . 2011.
    An introduction to the ethical issues of surveillance in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  •  9
    Being watched
    The Philosophers' Magazine 63 84-90. 2013.
  •  5
    Ethics in an Age of Surveillance by Adam Henschke (review)
    Ethics and International Affairs 32 (1): 119-121. 2018.
  •  2
    _The Ethics of Surveillance: An Introduction_ systematically and comprehensively examines the ethical issues surrounding the concept of surveillance. Addressing important questions such as: Is it ever acceptable to spy on one's allies? To what degree should the state be able to intrude into its citizens' private lives in the name of security? Can corporate espionage ever be justified? What are the ethical issues surrounding big data? How far should a journalist go in pursuing information? Is it …Read more
  •  2
    Response
    Surveillance and Society 12 (1): 175-181. 2014.
    A response to four papers critiquing a discussion document (Just Surveillance? Towards a normative theory of surveillance)
  • Mass Surveillance: A Private Affair?
    Moral Philosophy and Politics 7 (1): 9-27. 2020.
    Mass surveillance is a more real threat now than at any time in history. Digital communications and automated systems allow for the collection and processing of private information at a scale never seen before. Many argue that mass surveillance entails a significant loss of privacy. Others dispute that there is a loss of privacy if the information is only encountered by automated systems. This paper argues that automated mass surveillance does not involve a significant loss of privacy. Through p…Read more
  • Big Data and Democracy (edited book)
    Edinburgh University Press. 2020.
  • Privacy and the Media by Andrew McStay (review)
    European Journal of Communication 33 (1): 102. 2018.