•  87
    Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons from the HPV Vaccines
    with Inmaculada De Melo-Martín
    Hypatia 26 (1). 2011.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scruti…Read more
  •  1
  •  28
    Science at the Frontiers: Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Science
    with Adam D. Roth, Anya Plutynski, Bridget Buxton, Steven C. Hatch, Sharyn Clough, Brian L. Keeley, Yuri Yamamoto, Lawrence Souder, Evelyn Brister, Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, and Glen Sanford
    Lexington Books. 2011.
    Compiled by an archaeologist and philosopher of science, Science at the Frontiers: Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Science supplements current literature in the history and philosophy of science with essays approaching the traditional problems of the field from new perspectives and highlighting disciplines usually overlooked by the canon. William H. Krieger brings together scientists from a number of disciplines to answer these questions and more in a volume appropriate for both st…Read more
  •  8
    Value-Free Science?: Ideals and Illusions (review)
    Polish Journal of Philosophy 2 (2): 143-147. 2008.
  •  35
    Despite the National Science Foundation's recent clarification of the Broader Impacts Criterion used in grant evaluation, it is not clear that this criterion is being understood or applied consistently by grant writers or reviewers. In particular, there is still confusion about how to interpret the requirement for broadening the participation of under-represented groups in science and scepticism about the value of doing so. Much of this stems from uncertainty about why the participation of under…Read more
  •  7
    Interpreting evidence
    with Inmaculada De Melo-Martín
    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1): 59-70. 2012.
  •  8
    Social values and scientific evidence: the case of the HPV vaccines
    with Inmaculada Melo-martín
    Biology and Philosophy 25 (2): 203-213. 2010.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined …Read more
  •  243
    Over the past twenty-five years, numerous articles in Hypatia have clarified, revised, and defended increasingly more nuanced views of both feminist empiricism and standpoint feminism. Feminist empiricists have argued that scientific knowledge is contextual and socially situated (Longino 1990; Nelson 1990; Anderson 1995), and standpoint feminists have begun to endorse virtues of theory choice that have been traditionally empiricist (Wylie 2003). In fact, it is unclear whether substantive differe…Read more
  •  114
    Social values and scientific evidence: The case of the HPV vaccines
    with Inmaculada de Melo-Martín
    Biology and Philosophy 25 (2): 203-213. 2010.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined …Read more
  •  24
    Value-Free Science?
    Polish Journal of Philosophy 2 (2): 143-147. 2008.
  •  53
    Thanks in large part to the record of scholarship fostered by Hypatia, feminist philosophers are now positioned not just as critics of the canon, but as innovators advancing uniquely feminist perspectives for theorizing about the world. As relatively junior feminist scholars, the five of us were called upon to provide some reflections on emerging trends in feminist philosophy and to comment on its future. Despite the fact that we come from diverse subfields and philosophical traditions, four com…Read more
  •  46
    The Flight Against Doubt
    with Inmaculada de Melo-Martin
    Oxford University Press. 2018.
    The lack of public support for climate change policies and refusals to vaccinate children are just two alarming illustrations of the impacts of dissent about scientific claims. Dissent can lead to confusion, false beliefs, and widespread public doubt about highly justified scientific evidence. Even more dangerously, it has begun to corrode the very authority of scientific consensus and knowledge. Deployed aggressively and to political ends, some dissent can intimidate scientists, stymie research…Read more
  •  83
    Interpreting Evidence: Why Values Can Matter As Much As Science
    with Inmaculada de Melo-Martín
    Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1): 59-70. 2012.
    Despite increasing recognition of the ways in which ethical and social values play a role in science (Kitcher 2001; Longino 1990, 2002), scientists are often still reluctant to acknowledge or discuss ethical and social values at stake in their research. Even when research is closely connected to developing public policy, it is generally held that it should be empirical data, and not the values of scientists, that inform policy. According to this view, scientists need not, and should not, endorse…Read more
  •  42
    Many have argued that allowing and encouraging public avenues for dissent and critical evaluation of scientific research is a necessary condition for promoting the objectivity of scientific communities and advancing scientific knowledge . The history of science reveals many cases where an existing scientific consensus was later shown to be wrong . Dissent plays a crucial role in uncovering potential problems and limitations of consensus views. Thus, many have argued that scientific communities o…Read more
  •  124
    Distinguishing between legitimate and illegitimate values in climate modeling
    European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2): 217-232. 2015.
    While it is widely acknowledged that science is not “free” of non-epistemic values, there is disagreement about the roles that values can appropriately play. Several have argued that non-epistemic values can play important roles in modeling decisions, particularly in addressing uncertainties ; Risbey 2007; Biddle and Winsberg 2010; Winsberg : 111-137, 2012); van der Sluijs 359-389, 2012). On the other hand, such values can lead to bias ; Bray ; Oreskes and Conway 2010). Thus, it is important to …Read more
  •  270
    Science and values: Are value judgments always irrelevant to the justification of scientific claims?
    Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3). 2001.
    Several feminist theorists have claimed that feminist values ought to influence theory choice. Susan Haack has argued that this is implausible because normative claims about what ought to be the case can never provide justification for descriptive claims. I argue against one of the premises of Haack's argument. Furthermore, I attempt to show that the most promising defense of this premise would cast doubt on a second premise of Haack's argument. My aim is to open up the possibility that value ju…Read more
  •  52
    The argument from inductive risk has been embraced by many as a successful account of the role of values in science that challenges the value-free ideal. We argue that it is not obvious that the argument from inductive risk actually undermines the value-free ideal. This is because the inductive risk argument endorses an assumption held by proponents of the value-free ideal: that contextual values never play an appropriate role in determining evidence. We show that challenging the value-free idea…Read more
  •  68
    Are there limits to scientists' obligations to seek and engage dissenters?
    with Inmaculada de Melo-Martín
    Synthese 191 (12): 2751-2765. 2014.
    Dissent is thought to play a valuable role in science, so that scientific communities ought to create opportunities for receiving critical feedback and take dissenting views seriously. There is concern, however, that some dissent does more harm than good. Dissent on climate change and evolutionary theory, for example, has confused the public, created doubt about existing consensus, derailed public policy, and forced scientists to devote resources to respond. Are there limits to the extent to whi…Read more
  •  111
    Addressing problems in profit-driven research: how can feminist conceptions of objectivity help?
    with Inmaculada de Melo-Martín
    European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2): 135-151. 2014.
    Although there is increased recognition of the inevitable--and perhaps sometimes beneficial-- role of values in scientific inquiry, there are also growing concerns about the potential for commercial values to lead to bias. This is particularly evident in biomedical research. There is a concern that conflicts of interest created by commercialization may lead to biased reasoning or methodological choices in testing drugs and medical interventions. In addition, such interests may lead research in d…Read more
  •  12
    Several feminist theorists have claimed that feminist values ought to influence theory choice. Susan Haack has argued that this is implausible because normative claims about what ought to be the case can never provide justification for descriptive claims. I argue against one of the premises of Haack's argument. Furthermore, I attempt to show that the most promising defense of this premise would cast doubt on a second premise of Haack's argument. My aim is to open up the possibility that value ju…Read more