•  1792
    The Goods of Work (Other Than Money!)
    Journal of Social Philosophy 47 (1): 70-89. 2016.
    The evaluation of labour markets and of particular jobs ought to be sensitive to a plurality of benefits and burdens of work. We use the term 'the goods of work' to refer to those benefits of work that cannot be obtained in exchange for money and that can be enjoyed mostly or exclusively in the context of work. Drawing on empirical research and various philosophical traditions of thinking about work we identify four goods of work: 1) attaining various types of excellence; 2) making a social cont…Read more
  •  1220
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, s…Read more
  •  160
    Wer sind wir, wenn wir arbeiten? Soziale Identität im Markt bei Smith und Hegel
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 59 (6): 835-852. 2011.
    This article examines the ways in which Adam Smith and G. W. F Hegel conceptualize the identity of workers in a market economy. Although both see human beings as shaped in and through social rela- tionships, the relation between the worker and his work is seen in different ways. For Smith, workers “have” human capital, while for Hegel workers “are” brewers, butchers or bakers;; their profession is part of their identity. This conceptual difference, which is reflected in different “varieties of c…Read more
  •  105
    In many Western capitalist economies, private indebtedness is pervasive, but it has received little attention from political philosophers. Economic theory emphasizes the liberating potential of debt contracts, but its picture is based on assumptions that do not always hold, especially when there is a background of structural injustice. Private debt contracts are likely to miss their liberating potential if there is deception or lack of information, if there is insufficient access to (regular for…Read more
  •  79
    Workplace democracy—The recent debate
    with Roberto Frega and Christian Neuhäuser
    Philosophy Compass 14 (4). 2019.
  •  77
    Ideal and Non‐ideal Theory and the Problem of Knowledge
    Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (4): 271-288. 2012.
    This article analyses a hitherto neglected problem at the transition from ideal to non‐ideal theory: the problem of knowledge. Ideal theories often make idealising assumptions about the availability of knowledge, for example knowledge of social scientific facts. This can lead to problems when this knowledge turns out not to be available at the non‐ideal level. Knowledge can be unavailable in a number of ways: in principle, for practical reasons, or because there are normative reasons not to use …Read more
  •  62
    Markets
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2013. forthcoming.
    This article presents the most important strands of the philosophical debate about markets. It offers some distinctions between the concept of markets and related concepts, as well as a brief outline of historical positions vis-à-vis markets. The main focus is on presenting the most common arguments for and against markets, and on analyzing the ways in which markets are related to other social institutions. In the concluding section questions about markets are connected to two related themes, me…Read more
  •  61
    Distributive Justice, Feasibility Gridlocks, and the Harmfulness of Economic Ideology
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (5): 957-969. 2015.
    Many political theorists think about how to make societies more just. In recent years, with interests shifting from principles to their institutional realization, there has been much debate about feasibility and the role it should play in theorizing. What has been underexplored, however, is how feasibility depends on the attitudes and perceptions of individuals, not only with regard to their own behaviour, but also with regard to the behaviour of others. This can create coordination problems, wh…Read more
  •  51
    Adam Smith on Markets and Justice
    Philosophy Compass 9 (12): 864-875. 2014.
    This paper discusses Adam Smith's views of social justice. It first describes Smith's optimistic view of markets, for example with regard to the absence of negative externalities, which implies that he considered certain normative problems to be the exception rather than the rule. Then, Smith's views on redistribution are discussed: although he is sympathetic to progressive taxation, his main focus remains on free markets, which can partly be explained by his distrust of politicians. If one take…Read more
  •  49
    Why economic agency matters: An account of structural domination in the economic realm
    with Rutger Claassen
    European Journal of Political Theory 20 (3): 465-485. 2019.
    Authors like Iris Young and Philip Pettit have come up with proposals for theorizing ‘structural injustice’ and social relations marred by ‘domination’. These authors provide conceptual tools for f...
  •  45
    Higher and lower virtues in commercial society: Adam Smith and motivation crowding out
    Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (4): 370-395. 2011.
    Motivation crowding out can lead to a reduction of ‘higher’ virtues, such as altruism or public spirit, in market contexts. This article discusses the role of virtue in the moral and economic theory of Adam Smith. It argues that because Smith’s account of commercial society is based on ‘lower’ virtue, ‘higher’ virtue has a precarious place in it; this phenomenon is structurally similar to motivation crowding out. The article analyzes and systematizes the ways in which Smith builds on ‘contrivanc…Read more
  •  41
    Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel, and Political Theory (edited book)
    Oxford University Press. 2013.
    Inventing the Market explores two paradigms of the market in the thought of Adam Smith and G.W.F. Hegel, bridging the gap between economics and philosophy, it shows that both disciplines can profit from a broader, more historically situated ...
  •  39
    Harry G. Frankfurt, On Inequality. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3): 823-825. 2016.
    This is a book review. Summary: I'm not a fan.
  •  38
    The modern social contract tradition
    In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics, Springer. pp. 631--645. 2013.
    This chapter discusses central strands of the modern social contract tradition. Distinguishing between moral and political theories on the one hand and contractualist and contractarian theories on the other, it presents one example of each of the ensuing categories: Gauthier’s moral contractarianism, Buchanan’s political contractarianism, Scanlon’s moral contractualism, and Rawls’ political contractualism. In the conclusion, strengths and weaknesses of social contract theories are discussed.
  •  33
    Adam Smith's Account of Justice Between Naturalness and Historicity
    Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (4): 703-726. 2014.
    adam smith1 is often taken to be an heir to the natural jurisprudence tradition, to which he explicitly refers in several places in his oeuvre.2 He combines it with an account of the moral sentiments, in which he sees the origin of morality and justice.3 The moral sentiments, as explored in The Theory of Moral Sentiments, are the basis for justice, which, embodied in positive law, is the framework for commercial society, the economy of which Smith explores in the Wealth of Nations. in this sense…Read more
  •  31
    Making Power Explicit
    with Rutger Claassen
    Social Theory and Practice 47 (2): 221-246. 2021.
    In this paper we argue that liberal-egalitarian theorists of justice should take power, especially economic power, seriously and make it explicit. We argue that many theories of justice have left power implicit, relying on what we call the “primacy of politics” model as a background assumption. However, this model does not suffice to capture the power relations of today’s globalized world, in which the power of nation states has been reduced and material inequality has sky-rocketed. We suggest r…Read more
  •  30
    In the late 1740s a young man who had just returned from Oxford to his native Scotland gave a series of lectures on rhetoric and belles lettres in Edinburgh. This man was no other than Adam Smith, who would soon become famous for his writings about moral philosophy and, most of all, economic issues. Smith the moral philosopher and Smith the economist quickly overshadowed Smith the theoretician of rhetoric. Even in today’s scholarly perception the curious fact that the founder of economics made h…Read more
  •  29
    Citizens' Autonomy and Corporate Cultural Power
    Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (2): 205-230. 2020.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
  •  27
    In this paper, I analyze the moral responsibili- ties that companies have with regard to the development of their sector, especially when there are path dependences that can lead sectors on more or less morally accept- able paths, e.g., with regard to market access for disad- vantaged groups. The interdependencies between companies in a sector are underexplored in the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Reflections on the normative status of profit-seeking and on the normative b…Read more
  •  27
    The politics of footnotes
    The Philosophers' Magazine 65 20-21. 2014.
    (argues for the relevance of considerations of justice for how philosophers cite)
  •  26
    Was bedeutet es, "Märkte einzubetten"? Eine Taxonomie
    Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 3 (1): 13-52. 2016.
    Der Aufsatz untersucht, was mit der Metapher von der moralischen "Einbettung" von Märkten gemeint ist. Zunächst werden verschiedene Formen der deskriptiven Einbettung - soziologisch, rechtlich, und institutionell - unerschieden, was zu der These führt, dass kein Markt in einem deskriptiven Sinn „uneingebettet“ ist, und dass die Frage nach Einbettung nicht alleine durch die Betrachtung von Märkten beantwortet werden kann, sondern eine breitere institutionelle Analyse erfordert. Anschließend wird …Read more
  •  26
    Internalized Moral Identity in Ethical Leadership
    with Rebekka Skubinn
    Journal of Business Ethics 133 (2): 249-260. 2016.
    The relevance of leader ethicality has moti- vated ethical leadership theory. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of moral identity for the concept of ethical leadership. We relate ethical leadership incorporating an internalized moral identity to productive deviant workplace behavior. Using qualitative empirical data we illustrate the relevance of critical situations, i.e., situations in which hypernorms and organizational norms diverge, for the distinction of ethical leaders with or wit…Read more
  •  23
    Debates about justice in political philosophy often ask which distributive end state is normatively desirable. The economic mechanisms that generate the ‘pie’ that is to be distributed are usually left unexplored. Mark R. Reiff’s new book, in contrast, asks what justice means within economic processes, and how changes in the framework of the economy could lead to more justice, including justice in the distributive sense. As such, Reiff’s account is in a line with other recent accounts such as Di…Read more
  •  22
    The paper develops a responsibility-based account of professional ethics in banking. From this perspective, bankers have duties not only toward clients—the traditional focus of professional ethics—but also regarding the prevention of systemic harms to whole societies. When trying to fulfill these duties, bankers have to meet three challenges: epistemic challenges, motivational challenges, and a coordination challenge. These challenges can best be met by a combination of regulation and ethics tha…Read more
  •  21
    Persönliches Vertrauen, Rechtsvertrauen, Systemvertrauen
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 61 (4): 529-548. 2013.
    This essay analyses the role of different forms of trust in the context of financial markets. It argues that rather than being caused by a lack of trust, the financial crisis of 2007 can be characterized by a shift from personal trust, with its normative and epistemic implications, towards too much “systemic trust”. Through a process of legalization and formalization, loans became standardized, and lenders relied not on the trustworthiness of borrowers, but on their legal claims and the ability …Read more
  •  18
    ,,Moral Luck" in Moral und Recht: Ein induktiver Vergleich zweier normativer Ordnungen anhand des Umgangs mit dem Zufall
    with Thomas Wischmeyer
    Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 99 (2): 212-227. 2013.
    A case of Moral Luck occurs whenever we normatively assess agents for things that depend on factors beyond their control. The paper takes a comparative approach and examines how morality and law deal with such cases. The comparative perspective allows us to explain the problem of Moral Luck as a tension inherent in normative orders: While normative orders are based on a strong connection between responsibility and voluntariness, this idealist assumption is at least partly at odds with their func…Read more
  •  17
    Just Wages in Which Markets?
    Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (2): 105-123. 2018.