•  1194
    Equality: Selected Readings (edited book)
    with Robert Westmoreland
    Oup Usa. 1997.
    Louis Pojman and Robert Westmoreland have compiled the best material on the subject of equality, ranging from classical works by Aristotle, Hobbes and Rousseau to contemporary works by John Rawls, Thomas Nagel, Michael Walzer, Harry Frankfurt, Bernard Williams and Robert Nozick; and including such topics as: the concept of equality; equal opportunity; Welfare egalitarianism; resources; equal human rights and complex equality.
  •  892
    The Case Against Affirmative Action
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1): 97-115. 1998.
    Affirmative Action is becoming the most controversial social issue of our day. In this essay I examine nine arguments on the moral status of Affirmative Action. I distinguish between weak Affirmative Action, which seeks to provide fair opportunity to all citizens from strong Affirmative Action, which enjoins preferential treatment to groups who have been underrepresented in social positions. I conclude that while weak Affirmative Action is morally required, strong Affirmative Action is morally w…Read more
  •  565
    In Defense of the Death Penalty
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 11 (2): 11-16. 1997.
  •  272
    The Death Penalty: For and Against
    with Jeffrey Reiman
    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 1997.
    Two distinguished social and political philosophers take opposing positions in this highly engaging work. Louis P. Pojman justifies the practice of execution by appealing to the principle of retribution while Jeffrey Reiman argues that although the death penalty is a just punishment for murder, we are not morally obliged to execute murderers
  •  225
    Faith, hope and doubt
    Philosophy of Religion. forthcoming.
  •  188
    Faith Without Belief?
    Faith and Philosophy 3 (2): 157-176. 1986.
    For many religious people there is a problem of doubting various credal statements contained in their religions. Often propositional beliefs are looked upon as necessary conditions for salvation. This causes great anxiety in doubters and raises the question of the importance of belief in religion and in life in general. It is a question that has been neglected in philosophy of religion and theology. In this paper I shall explore the question of the importance of belief as a religious attitude an…Read more
  •  172
    In 1941 Father Maximilian Kolbe, a Polish friar from Warsaw was arrested for publishing anti-Nazi pamphlets and sentenced to Auschwitz. There he was beaten, kicked by shiny leather boots, and whipped by his prison guards. After one prisoner successfully escaped, the prescribed punishment was to select ten other prisoners who were to die by starvation. As ten prisoners were pulled out of line one by one, Fr. Kolbe broke out from the ranks, pleading with he Commandant to be allowed to take the pla…Read more
  •  139
    Kierkegaard on Faith and Freedom
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 27 (1/2). 1990.
  •  114
    Are human rights based on equal human worth?
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (3): 605-622. 1992.
  •  108
    A Critique of Contemporary Egalitarianism: A Christian Perspective
    Faith and Philosophy 8 (4): 481-504. 1991.
    Theories of equal human rights have experienced an exponential growth during the past thirty or forty years. From declarations of human rights, such as the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to arguments about the rights of fetuses versus the rights of women, to claims and counter claims about the rights of minorities to preferential hiring, the rights of animals to life and well-being, and the rights of trees to be preserved, the proliferation of rights affects every phase o…Read more
  •  61
    What Is Moral Philosophy?
    In Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Laura Westra (eds.), Technology and Values, Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 11--24. 1997.
  •  61
    Merit: Why Do We Value It?
    Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (1): 83-102. 1999.
  •  60
    Believing and willing
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15 (March): 37-56. 1985.
    It is widely held that we can obtain beliefs and withhold believing propositions directly by performing an act of will. This thesis is sometimes identified with the view that believing is a basic act, an act which is under our direct control. Descartes holds that the will is limitless in relation to belief acquisition and that we must be directly responsible for our beliefs, especially our false beliefs, for otherwise we could draw the blasphemous conclusion that God is responsible for them. For…Read more
  •  57
    An Essay on Belief and Acceptance
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (2): 496-498. 1995.
  •  56
    The moral status of affirmative action
    Public Affairs Quarterly 6 (2): 181-206. 1992.
  •  55
    Kierkegaard on justification of belief
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 8 (2). 1977.
  •  54
    The Case for World Government
    Journal of Philosophical Research 31 59-80. 2006.
    The world is becoming an ever-shrinking global village in which the events of one neighborhood tend to reverberate through the whole. In this essay I examine the best arguments available for both nationalist commitments and for moral cosmopolitanism and then try to reconcile them within a larger framework of institutional cosmopolitanism or World Government. My thesis is that in an international Hobbesian world like ours, increasingly threatened by global problems related to the environment, tra…Read more
  •  50
    Equality and Desert
    Philosophy 72 (282). 1997.
    Justice is a constant and perpetual will to give every man his due. The principles of law are these: to live virtuously, not to harm others, to give his due to everyone. Jurisprudence is the knowledge of divine and human things, the science of the just and the unjust. Law is the art of goodness and justice. By virtue of this [lawyers] may be called priests, for we cherish justice and profess knowledge or goodness and equity, separating right from wrong and legal from the illegal
  •  50
    Straw Man or Straw Theory?: A Reply to Albert Mosley
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (2): 169-180. 1998.
    I respond to Albert Mosley’s critique that I only attack straw men arguments against affirmative action by showing both that his own argument is a version of one of these “straw men” and that his objections to my arguments can be rebutted.
  •  49
    In 1941 Father Maximilian Kolbe, a Polish friar from Warsaw was arrested for publishing anti-Nazi pamphlets and sentenced to Auschwitz. There he was beaten, kicked by shiny leather boots, and whipped by his prison guards. After one prisoner successfully escaped, the prescribed punishment was to select ten other prisoners who were to die by starvation. As ten prisoners were pulled out of line one by one, Fr. Kolbe broke out from the ranks, pleading with he Commandant to be allowed to take the pla…Read more
  •  48
    Equality
    Journal of Philosophical Research 24 193-245. 1999.
    The dominant contemporary political theory is egalitarianism, yet egalitarians seldom give a clear justification of their position. In this paper I examine such questions as, What is egalitarianism all about? What is so attractive about equality? And what is the proper criterion? What do egalitarians want to equalize and why? My primary hypothesis is that current egalitarian theories either illicitly attempt to derive substantive conclusions from formal notions or, if they are substantive, are b…Read more
  •  44
    The Moral Case for Institutional Cosmopolitanism
    Croatian Journal of Philosophy 4 (1): 3-28. 2004.
    In this paper I consider both moral and non-moral reasons for world government, what has been called ‘institutional cosmopolitanism’. I first describe several non-moral forces leading to the need for a central international governing body, and then I offer three Moral Arguments for Cosmopolitanism. The main arguments are The Moral Point of View: The Principle of Humanity and the Moral Equality of Persons. I then argue that the case for moral cosmopolitanism together with the non-moral forces lea…Read more
  •  44
    Gilbert Harman's internalist Moral Relativism
    Modern Schoolman 68 (1): 19-39. 1990.
  •  37
    Review of James Kellenberger, Moral Relativism, Moral Diversity, and Human Relations (review)
    Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (4). 2002.
  •  35
    Book Review:Moral Realism. Torbjorn Tannsjo (review)
    Ethics 101 (4): 868-. 1991.