•  1848
    How to Design AI for Social Good: Seven Essential Factors
    with Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, and Thomas C. King
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3): 1771-1796. 2020.
    The idea of artificial intelligence for social good is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to tackle social problems through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies. This article addresses this gap by identifying seven ethical factor…Read more
  •  1141
    Digital psychiatry: ethical risks and opportunities for public health and well-Being
    with Christopher Burr, Jessica Morley, and Luciano Floridi
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society 1 (1): 21-33. 2020.
    Common mental health disorders are rising globally, creating a strain on public healthcare systems. This has led to a renewed interest in the role that digital technologies may have for improving mental health outcomes. One result of this interest is the development and use of artificial intelligence for assessing, diagnosing, and treating mental health issues, which we refer to as ‘digital psychiatry’. This article focuses on the increasing use of digital psychiatry outside of clinical settings…Read more
  •  1002
    Healthcare systems across the globe are struggling with increasing costs and worsening outcomes. This presents those responsible for overseeing healthcare with a challenge. Increasingly, policymakers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of the solution will be ‘Artificial Intelligence’ (AI) – particularly Machine Learning (ML). This argument stems not from the belief that all healthcare needs will soon be taken care of by “robot doctors.” In…Read more
  •  439
    Ethical aspects of multi-stakeholder recommendation systems
    The Information Society 37 (1): 35-45. 2021.
    This article analyses the ethical aspects of multistakeholder recommendation systems (RSs). Following the most common approach in the literature, we assume a consequentialist framework to introduce the main concepts of multistakeholder recommendation. We then consider three research questions: who are the stakeholders in a RS? How are their interests taken into account when formulating a recommendation? And, what is the scientific paradigm underlying RSs? Our main finding is that multistakeholde…Read more
  •  191
    Information Warfare: A Philosophical Perspective (review)
    Philosophy and Technology 25 (1): 105-120. 2012.
    This paper focuses on Information Warfare—the warfare characterised by the use of information and communication technologies. This is a fast growing phenomenon, which poses a number of issues ranging from the military use of such technologies to its political and ethical implications. The paper presents a conceptual analysis of this phenomenon with the goal of investigating its nature. Such an analysis is deemed to be necessary in order to lay the groundwork for future investigations into this t…Read more
  •  158
    The ethics of AI in health care: a mapping review
    with Jessica Morley, Caio C. V. Machado, Christopher Burr, Josh Cowls, Indra Joshi, and Luciano Floridi
    Social Science & Medicine 260. 2020.
    This article presents a mapping review of the literature concerning the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in health care. The goal of this review is to summarise current debates and identify open questions for future research. Five literature databases were searched to support the following research question: how can the primary ethical risks presented by AI-health be categorised, and what issues must policymakers, regulators and developers consider in order to be ‘ethically mindful? A seri…Read more
  •  151
    This paper provides a new analysis of e - trust , trust occurring in digital contexts, among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system. The analysis endorses a non-psychological approach and rests on a Kantian regulative ideal of a rational agent, able to choose the best option for itself, given a specific scenario and a goal to achieve. The paper first introduces e-trust describing its relevance for the contemporary society and then presents a new theoretical analysis of this phe…Read more
  •  121
    The AI gambit — leveraging artificial intelligence to combat climate change: opportunities, challenges, and recommendations
    with Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsamados, and Luciano Floridi
    In Vodafone Institute for Society and Communications. 2021.
    In this article we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change and it contribute to combating the climate crisis effectively. However, the development of AI also raises two sets of problems when considering climate change: the possible exacerbation of social and ethical challenges alread…Read more
  •  110
    Artificial intelligence and the ‘Good Society’: the US, EU, and UK approach
    with Corinne Cath, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, and Luciano Floridi
    Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2): 505-528. 2018.
    In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence. In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a ‘good AI society’. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: the development of a ‘good AI society’; …Read more
  •  103
    A definition, benchmark and database of AI for social good initiatives
    with Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsmadaos, and Luciano Floridi
    Nature Machine Intelligence 3 111-115. 2021.
    Initiatives relying on artificial intelligence (AI) to deliver socially beneficial outcomes—AI for social good (AI4SG)—are on the rise. However, existing attempts to understand and foster AI4SG initiatives have so far been limited by the lack of normative analyses and a shortage of empirical evidence. In this Perspective, we address these limitations by providing a definition of AI4SG and by advocating the use of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a benchmark for tracing…Read more
  •  92
    Ethical guidelines for COVID-19 tracing apps
    with Jessica Morley, Josh Cowls, and Luciano Floridi
    Nature 582 29-31. 2020.
    Technologies to rapidly alert people when they have been in contact with someone carrying the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are part of a strategy to bring the pandemic under control. Currently, at least 47 contact-tracing apps are available globally. They are already in use in Australia, South Korea and Singapore, for instance. And many other governments are testing or considering them. Here we set out 16 questions to assess whether — and to what extent — a contact-tracing app is ethically justifiable…Read more
  •  78
    Cyber Security and Individual Rights, Striking the Right Balance
    Philosophy and Technology 26 (4): 353-356. 2013.
    In this article, I offer an outline of the papers comprising the special issue. I also provide a brief overview of its topic, namely, the friction between cyber security measures and individual rights. I consider such a friction to be a new and exacerbated version of what Mill called ‘the struggle between liberties and authorities,’ and I claim that the struggle arises because of the involvement of public authorities in the management of the cyber sphere, for technological and state power can pu…Read more
  •  71
    Internet Neutrality: Ethical Issues in the Internet Environment
    with Matteo Turilli and Antonino Vaccaro
    Philosophy and Technology 25 (2): 133-151. 2012.
    This paper investigates the ethical issues surrounding the concept of Internet neutrality focusing specifically on the correlation between neutrality and fairness. Moving from an analysis of the many available definitions of Internet neutrality and the heterogeneity of the Internet infrastructure, the common assumption that a neutral Internet is also a fair Internet is challenged. It is argued that a properly neutral Internet supports undesirable situations in which few users can exhaust the maj…Read more
  •  71
    The Case of Online Trust
    with Matteo Turilli and Antonino Vaccaro
    Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4): 333-345. 2010.
    This paper contributes to the debate on online trust addressing the problem of whether an online environment satisfies the necessary conditions for the emergence of trust. The paper defends the thesis that online environments can foster trust, and it does so in three steps. Firstly, the arguments proposed by the detractors of online trust are presented and analysed. Secondly, it is argued that trust can emerge in uncertain and risky environments and that it is possible to trust online identities…Read more
  •  70
    Artificial intelligence crime: an interdisciplinary analysis of foreseeable threats and solutions
    with Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, and Luciano Floridi
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1): 89-120. 2020.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated mark…Read more
  •  68
    Trusting artificial intelligence in cybersecurity is a double-edged sword
    with Tom McCutcheon and Luciano Floridi
    Philosophy and Technology 32 1-15. 2019.
    Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for cybersecurity tasks are attracting greater attention from the private and the public sectors. Estimates indicate that the market for AI in cybersecurity will grow from US$1 billion in 2016 to a US$34.8 billion net worth by 2025. The latest national cybersecurity and defence strategies of several governments explicitly mention AI capabilities. At the same time, initiatives to define new standards and certification procedures to elicit users’ trust …Read more
  •  64
    Just Information Warfare
    Topoi 35 (1): 213-224. 2016.
    In this article I propose an ethical analysis of information warfare, the warfare waged in the cyber domain. The goal is twofold: filling the theoretical vacuum surrounding this phenomenon and providing the conceptual grounding for the definition of new ethical regulations for information warfare. I argue that Just War Theory is a necessary but not sufficient instrument for considering the ethical implications of information warfare and that a suitable ethical analysis of this kind of warfare is…Read more
  •  61
    An Information-based Solution for the Puzzle of Testimony and Trust
    Social Epistemology 24 (4): 285-299. 2010.
    In this paper, I offer a contribution to the debate on testimony that rests on three elements: the definition of semantic information, the analysis of trust as a second?order property of first?order relations, and Floridi?s Network Theory of Account (NTA). I argue that testimony transmits semantic information and it is neither grounded on trust nor justified by it. Instead, I show that testimony is an occurrence of a first?order relation of communication affected by the second?order property of …Read more
  •  59
    The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions
    with Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, and Luciano Floridi
    AI and Society. 2021.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated anal…Read more
  •  57
    Defining Trust and E-trust: Old Theories and New Problems
    International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction (IJTHI) Official Publication of the Information Resources Management Association 5 (2): 23-35. 2009.
    The paper provides a selective analysis of the main theories of trust and e-trust (that is, trust in digital environments) provided in the last twenty years, with the goal of preparing the ground for a new philosophical approach to solve the problems facing them. It is divided into two parts. The first part is functional toward the analysis of e-trust: it focuses on trust and its definition and foundation and describes the general background on which the …Read more
  •  49
    How AI can be a force for good
    with Luciano Floridi
    Science Magazine 361 (6404): 751-752. 2018.
    This article argues that an ethical framework will help to harness the potential of AI while keeping humans in control.
  •  40
    In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence, entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’. This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan industry, and to emerge as the driving force in defining ethical norms and standards for AI. Several reports have analysed specific aspects of China’s AI policies or have assessed the country’s technical capabi…Read more
  •  37
    Trust in Technology: A Distinctive and a Problematic Relation (review)
    Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3): 283-286. 2010.
    The use of tools and artefacts is a distinctive and problematic phenomenon in the history of humanity, and as such it has been a topic of discussion since the beginning of Western culture, from the myths of the Ancient Greek through Humanism and Romanticism to Heidegger. Several questionable aspects have been brought to the fore: the relation between technology and arts, the effects of the use of technology both on the world and on the user and the nature of the trust that users place in technol…Read more
  •  36
    The Struggle Between Liberties and Authorities in the Information Age
    Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (5): 1125-1138. 2015.
    The “struggle between liberties and authorities”, as described by Mill, refers to the tension between individual rights and the rules restricting them that are imposed by public authorities exerting their power over civil society. In this paper I argue that contemporary information societies are experiencing a new form of such a struggle, which now involves liberties and authorities in the cyber-sphere and, more specifically, refers to the tension between cyber-security measures and individual l…Read more
  •  26
    The ethics of digital well-being: a thematic review
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4): 2313-2343. 2020.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several k…Read more
  •  23
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical d…Read more
  •  23
    The Limits of Deterrence Theory in Cyberspace
    Philosophy and Technology 31 (3): 339-355. 2018.
    In this article, I analyse deterrence theory and argue that its applicability to cyberspace is limited and that these limits are not trivial. They are the consequence of fundamental differences between deterrence theory and the nature of cyber conflicts and cyberspace. The goals of this analysis are to identify the limits of deterrence theory in cyberspace, clear the ground of inadequate approaches to cyber deterrence, and define the conceptual space for a domain-specific theory of cyber deterre…Read more
  •  22
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, in a way similar to how they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. Two major risks ar…Read more
  •  18
    Information Societies, Ethical Enquiries
    with Elizabeth Buchanan
    Philosophy and Technology 28 (1): 5-10. 2015.
    The special issue collects a selection of papers presented during the Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiries 2013 conference. This is a series of conferences organized by the International Association for Ethics and Information Technology , a professional organization formed in 2001 and which gathers experts in information and computer ethics prompting interdisciplinary research and discussions on ethical problems related to design and deployment of information and communication technologies .…Read more