•  527
    Analysing Holocaust Survivor Testimony
    In S. Krämer & S. Weigel (eds.), Testimony / Bearing Witness, Rowman & Littlefied. pp. 137-167. 2017.
  •  346
    Epistemic relativism, scepticism, pluralism
    Synthese 194 (12): 4687-4703. 2017.
    There are a number of debates that are relevant to questions concerning objectivity in science. One of the eldest, and still one of the most intensely fought, is the debate over epistemic relativism. —All forms of epistemic relativism commit themselves to the view that it is impossible to show in a neutral, non-question-begging, way that one “epistemic system”, that is, one interconnected set of epistemic standards, is epistemically superior to others. I shall call this view “No-metajustificatio…Read more
  •  315
    Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49 69-79. 2015.
    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H₂O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable “systems of practice” in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang…Read more
  •  304
    Epistemic Relativism and Pluralism
    In Annalisa Coliva & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (eds.), Epistemic Pluralism, Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 203-227. 2017.
  •  297
    Simmel and Mannheim on the Sociology of Philosophy, Historicism and Relativism
    In Martin Kusch, Katherina Kinzel, Johannes Steizinger & Niels Jacob Wildschut (eds.), The Emergence of Relativism: German Thought from the Enlightenment to National Socialism, Routledge. pp. 165-180. 2019.
  •  294
    Relativist Stances, Virtues and Vices
    Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 271-291. 2019.
  •  289
  •  275
    Wittgenstein on Mathematics and Certainties
    International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (2-3): 120-142. 2016.
    _ Source: _Volume 6, Issue 2-3, pp 120 - 142 This paper aims to contribute to the debate over epistemic versus non-epistemic readings of the ‘hinges’ in Wittgenstein’s _On Certainty_. I follow Marie McGinn’s and Daniele Moyal-Sharrock’s lead in developing an analogy between mathematical sentences and certainties, and using the former as a model for the latter. However, I disagree with McGinn’s and Moyal-Sharrock’s interpretations concerning Wittgenstein’s views of both relata. I argue that mathe…Read more
  •  261
    The genealogical method in epistemology
    Synthese 197 (3): 1057-1076. forthcoming.
    In 1990 Edward Craig published a book called Knowledge and the State of Nature in which he introduced and defended a genealogical approach to epistemology. In recent years Craig’s book has attracted a lot of attention, and his distinctive approach has been put to a wide range of uses including anti-realist metaepistemology, contextualism, relativism, anti-luck virtue epistemology, epistemic injustice, value of knowledge, pragmatism and virtue epistemology. While the number of objections to Craig…Read more
  •  259
    The Genealogy of Relativism and Absolutism
    In Christos Kyriacou & Robin McKenna (eds.), Metaepistemology: Realism and Anti-Realism, Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 217-239. 2018.
  •  232
    Hacking’s historical epistemology: a critique of styles of reasoning
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (2): 158-173. 2010.
    The paper begins with a detailed reconstruction of the development of Ian Hacking’s theory of scientific ‘styles of reasoning’, paying particular attention to Alistair Crombie’s influence, and suggesting that Hacking’s theory deserves to come under the title ‘historical epistemology’. Subsequently, the paper seeks to establish three critical theses. First, Hacking’s reliance on Crombie leads him to adopt an outdated historiographical position; second, Hacking is unsuccessful in his attempt to di…Read more
  •  198
    Epistemological Anarchism Meets Epistemic Voluntarism
    In Karim Bschir & Jamie Shaw (eds.), Interpreting Feyerabend, Cambridge University Press. forthcoming.
  •  191
    From Völkerpsychologie to the Sociology of Knowledge
    Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2): 250-274. 2019.
    This article focuses on two developments in nineteenth-century (philosophy of) social science: Moritz Lazarus’s and Heymann Steinthal’s Völkerpsychologie and Georg Simmel’s early sociology of knowledge. The article defends the following theses. First, Lazarus and Steinthal wavered between a “strong” and a “weak” program for Völkerpsychologie. Ingredients for the strong program included methodological neutrality and symmetry; causal explanation of beliefs based on causal laws; a focus on groups, …Read more
  •  177
    Two kinds of actions: A phenomenological study
    with H. M. Collins
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (4): 799-819. 1995.
    In this paper, we will explain and analyse a phenomenological distinction between two kinds of actions. The distinction we have in mind is the difference between those actions that actors try, or are satisfied, to carry out, in like situations, ‘in the same way’, and all other actions. We call the first kind ‘mimeomorphic actions’ and the second kind ‘polimorphic actions’. We will define these two kinds of actions, and their species, on the basis of their characteristic intentions and experience…Read more
  •  174
    Relativism in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge Revisited
    In Natalie Alana Ashton, Robin McKenna & Katharina Anna Sodoma (eds.), Social Epistemology and Epistemic Relativism, Routledge. forthcoming.
  •  173
    Martin Kusch puts forth two controversial ideas: that knowledge is a social status and that knowledge is primarily the possession of groups rather than individuals. He defends the radical implications of his views: that knowledge is political, and that it varies with communities. This bold approach to epistemology is a challenge to philosophy and the wider academic world
  •  169
    Relativism can be found in all philosophical traditions and subfields of philosophy. It is also a central idea in the social sciences, the humanities, religion and politics. This is the first volume to map relativistic motifs in all areas of philosophy, synchronically and diachronically. It thereby provides essential intellectual tools for thinking about contemporary issues like cultural diversity, the plurality of the sciences, or the scope of moral values. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy …Read more
  •  164
    Wittgenstein as a Commentator on the Psychology and Anthropology of Colour
    In Stefan Riegelnik & Frederik A. Gierlinger (eds.), Wittgenstein on Colour, De Gruyter. pp. 93-108. 2014.
  •  154
    Georg Simmel and Pragmatism
    European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 11 (1). 2019.
  •  153
    In the 1890's, when fields such as psychology and philosophy were just emerging, turf wars between the disciplines were common-place. Philosophers widely discounted the possibility that psychology's claim to empirical truth had anything relevant to offer their field. And psychologists, such as the crazed and eccentric Otto Weinegger, often considered themselves philosophers. Freud, it is held, was deeply influenced by his wife, Martha's, uncle, who was also a philosopher. The tension between the…Read more
  •  107
    The World of Chronic Pain
    In Kevin Aho (ed.), Existential Medicine: Essays on Health and Illness, Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 61-80. 2018.
  •  91
    Review of T. Williamson, TETRALOGUE (review)
    Times Literary Supplement 5849 7-8. 2015.