•  332
    Values in Science beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk
    Philosophy of Science 80 (5): 829-839. 2013.
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to evidenti…Read more
  •  282
    Quantum frames
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 45 1-10. 2014.
    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space–time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosy…Read more
  •  211
    Relational quantum mechanics and the determinacy problem
    British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4): 679-695. 2009.
    Carlo Rovelli's relational interpretation of quantum mechanics holds that a system's states or the values of its physical quantities as normally conceived only exist relative to a cut between a system and an observer or measuring instrument. Furthermore, on Rovelli's account, the appearance of determinate observations from pure quantum superpositions happens only relative to the interaction of the system and observer. Jeffrey Barrett ([1999]) has pointed out that certain relational interpretatio…Read more
  •  157
    John Dewey’s Logic of Science
    Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (2): 258-306. 2012.
    In recent years, pragmatism in general and John Dewey in particular have been of increasing interest to philosophers of science. Dewey's work provides an interesting alternative package of views to those which derive from the logical empiricists and their critics, on problems of both traditional and more recent vintage. Dewey's work ought to be of special interest to recent philosophers of science committed to the program of analyzing ``science in practice.'' The core of Dewey's philosophy of sc…Read more
  •  155
    Picky eating is a moral failing
    In Dave Monroe & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), Food & Philosophy: Eat, Think, and Be Merry, Blackwell. 2007.
    Common wisdom includes expressions such as “there is no accounting for taste'’ that express a widely-accepted subjectivism about taste. We commonly say things like “I can’t stand anything with onions in it'’ or “Oh, I’d never eat sushi,'’ and we accept such from our friends and associates. It is the position of this essay that much of this language is actually quite unacceptable. Without appealing to complete objectivism about taste, I will argue that there are good reasons to think that there w…Read more
  •  123
    Models and perspectives on stage: remarks on Giere’s Scientific perspectivism
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2): 213-220. 2009.
    Ron Giere’s recent book Scientific perspectivism sets out an account of science that attempts to forge a via media between two popular extremes: absolutist, objectivist realism on the one hand, and social constructivism or skeptical anti-realism on the other. The key for Giere is to treat both scientific observation and scientific theories as perspectives, which are limited, partial, contingent, context-, agent- and purpose-dependent, and pluralism-friendly, while nonetheless world-oriented and …Read more
  •  113
    The source and status of values for socially responsible science
    Philosophical Studies 163 (1): 67-76. 2013.
    Philosophy of Science After Feminism is an important contribution to philosophy of science, in that it argues for the central relevance of advances from previous work in feminist philosophy of science and articulates a new vision for philosophy of science going in to the future. Kourany’s vision of philosophy of science’s future as “socially engaged and socially responsible” and addressing questions of the social responsibility of science itself has much to recommend it. I focus the book articul…Read more
  •  100
    n 1909, the 50th anniversary of both the publication of Origin of the Species and his own birth, John Dewey published "The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy." This optimistic essay saw Darwin's advance not only as one of empirical or theoretical biology, but a logical and conceptual revolution that would shake every corner of philosophy. Dewey tells us less about the influence that Darwin exerted over philosophy over the past 50 years and instead prophesied the influence it would take in the fut…Read more
  •  96
    Science as Socially Distributed Cognition: Bridging Philosophy and Sociology of Science
    In Karen François, Benedikt Löwe, Thomas Müller & Bart van Kerkhove (eds.), Foundations of the Formal Sciences VII, Studies in Logic, College Publications. 2011.
    I want to make plausible the following claim:Analyzing scientific inquiry as a species of socially distributed cognition has a variety of advantages for science studies, among them the prospects of bringing together philosophy and sociology of science. This is not a particularly novel claim, but one that faces major obstacles. I will retrace some of the major steps that have been made in the pursuit of a distributed cognition approach to science studies, paying special attention to the promise…Read more
  •  90
    This chapter will develop and apply ideas drawn from and inspired by Dewey’s work on science and democracy to the context of international relations (IR). I will begin with Dewey’s views on the nature of democracy, which lead us into his philosophy of science. I will show that scientific and policy inquiry are inextricably related processes, and that they both have special requirements in a democratic context. There are some challenges applying these ideas to the IR case, but these challenges ca…Read more
  •  80
    In the first part of this paper, I will sketch the main features of traditional models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that I regard as doing more harm than good. I will then proceed to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, which I will call DYNAMIC EVIDENTIAL FUNCTIONALISM. I will demonstrate its application to an illuminating example of scientific inquiry, and defend it from some likely objections. In the sec…Read more
  •  66
    John Dewey's pragmatist alternative to the belief-acceptance dichotomy
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53 62-70. 2015.
    Defenders of value-free science appeal to cognitive attitudes as part of a wedge strategy, to mark a distinction between science proper and the uses of science for decision-making, policy, etc. Distinctions between attitudes like belief and acceptance have played an important role in defending the value-free ideal. In this paper, I will explore John Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of science as an alternative to the philosophical framework the wedge strategy rests on. Dewey does draw significant a…Read more
  •  61
    Genuine Problems and the Significance of Science
    Contemporary Pragmatism 7 (2): 131-153. 2010.
    This paper addresses the political constraints on science through a pragmatist critique of Philip Kitcher’s account of “well-ordered science.” A central part of Kitcher’s account is his analysis of the significance of items of scientific research: contextual and purpose-relative scientific significance replaces mere truth as the aim of inquiry. I raise problems for Kitcher’s account and argue for an alternative, drawing on Peirce’s and Dewey’s theories of problem-solving inquiry. I conclude by s…Read more
  •  56
    Weaving Value Judgment into the Tapestry of Science
    Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (10). 2018.
    I critically analyze Kevin Elliott’s A Tapestry of Values in order to tease out his views on the nature and status of values or value judgments in the text. I show there is a tension in Elliott’s view that is closely connected to a major lacuna in the philosophical literature on values in science: the need for a better theory of values.
  •  56
    The abundant world: Paul Feyerabend's metaphysics of science
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 57 142-154. 2016.
    The goal of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Feyerabend's metaphysics of science as found in late works like Conquest of Abundance and Tyranny of Science. Feyerabend's late metaphysics consists of an attempt to criticize and provide a systematic alternative to traditional scientific realism, a package of views he sometimes referred to as “scientific materialism.” Scientific materialism is objectionable not only on metaphysical grounds, nor because it provides a poor ground for under…Read more
  •  47
    The Disconnect Problem, Scientific Authority, and Climate Policy
    Perspectives on Science 25 (1): 67-94. 2017.
    The disconnect problem arises wherever there is ongoing and severe discordance between the scientific assessment of a politically relevant issue, and the politics and legislation of said issue. Here, we focus on the disconnect problem as it arises in the case of climate change, diagnosing a failure to respect the necessary tradeoff between authority and autonomy within a public institution like science. After assessing the problematic deployment of scientific authority in this arena, we offer su…Read more
  •  45
    Introduction: Reappraising Paul Feyerabend
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 57 1-8. 2016.
    This volume is devoted to a reappraisal of the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend. It has four aims. The first is to reassess his already well-known work from the 1960s and 1970s in light of contemporary developments in the history and philosophy of science. The second is to explore themes in his neglected later work, including recently published and previously unavailable writings. The third is to assess the contributions that Feyerabend can make to contemporary debate, on topics such as perspectivi…Read more
  •  45
    In contemporary histories of psychology, William Moulton Marston is remembered for helping develop the lie detector test. He is better remembered in the history of popular culture for creating the comic book superhero Wonder Woman. In his time, however, he contributed to psychological research in deception, basic emotions, abnormal psychology, sexuality, and consciousness. He was also a radical feminist with connections to women's rights movements. Marston's work is an instructive case for philo…Read more
  •  39
    On what Quine is: A review of the cambridge companion to Quine (review)
    Mind, Culture, and Activity 13 (4): 339-343. 2006.
    A book review from the Quine volume of The Cambridge Companions to Philosophy series.
  •  39
    Science and Experience: A Deweyan Pragmatist Philosophy of Science
    Dissertation, University of California, San Diego. 2009.
    I resolve several pressing and recalcitrant problems in contemporary philosophy of science using resources from John Dewey's philosophy of science. I begin by looking at Dewey's epistemological and logical writings in their historical context, in order to understand better how Dewey's philosophy disappeared from the limelight, and I provide a reconstruction of his views. Then, I use that reconstruction to address problems of evidence, the social dimensions of science, and pluralism. Generally, m…Read more
  •  36
  •  27
    The Functional Complexity of Scientific Evidence
    Metaphilosophy 46 (1): 65-83. 2015.
    This article sketches the main features of traditional philosophical models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that it regards as doing more harm than good. It then proceeds to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, a view the author calls dynamic evidential functionalism (DEF). This alternative builds on insights from philosophy of scientific practice, Kuhnian philosophy of science, pragmatist epistemology, philos…Read more
  •  24
    Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation by Mark B. Brown (review)
    Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 101 (3): 686-687. 2010.
  •  24
    I discuss two popular but apparently contradictory theses: -/- T1. The democratic control of science – the aims and activities of science should be subject to public scrutiny via democratic processes of representation and participation. T2. The scientific control of policy, i.e. technocracy – political processes should be problem-solving pursuits determined by the methods and results of science and technology. Many arguments can be given for (T1), both epistemic and moral/political; I will focus…Read more
  •  18
    A Companion to Pragmatism (review)
    The Pluralist 6 (2): 101-103. forthcoming.
  •  16
    Science education owes a lot to John Dewey’s ideas of how science should be viewed and what science education should do. In this study, we explore how to help students use inquiry in decision-making based on John Dewey’s perspective. Science education aims for citizens to be scientifically literate, so that they can make informed-decisions in science-related issues. Conducting scientific inquiry is expected to help students make informed decisions, however, it is not clear how scientific inquiry…Read more
  •  10
    The Roles of Implicit Understanding of Engineering Ethics in Student Teams’ Discussion
    with Eun Ah Lee, Magdalena Grohman, Nicholas R. Gans, and Marco Tacca
    Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (6): 1755-1774. 2017.
    Following previous work that shows engineering students possess different levels of understanding of ethics—implicit and explicit—this study focuses on how students’ implicit understanding of engineering ethics influences their team discussion process, in cases where there is significant divergence between their explicit and implicit understanding. We observed student teams during group discussions of the ethical issues involved in their engineering design projects. Through the micro-scale disco…Read more
  •  7
    Connecting Inquiry and Values in Science Education
    with Eun Ah Lee
    Science & Education 27 (1-2): 63-79. 2018.
    Conducting scientific inquiry is expected to help students make informed decisions; however, how exactly it can help is rarely explained in science education standards. According to classroom studies, inquiry that students conduct in science classes seems to have little effect on their decision-making. Predetermined values play a large role in students’ decision-making, but students do not explore these values or evaluate whether they are appropriate to the particular issue they are deciding, an…Read more