• Since the late 1960s, philosophy for children has become a global, multi-disciplinary movement involving innovations in curriculum, pedagogy, educational theory, and teacher education; in moral, social and political philosophy; and in discourse and literary theory. And it has generated the new academic field of philosophy of childhood. Gareth B. Matthews (1929-2011) traced contemporary disrespect for children to Aristotle, for whom the child is essentially a pre-intellectual and pre-moral precur…Read more
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    Gareth B. Matthews, The Child's Philosopher (edited book)
    Routledge. 2021.
    Gareth B. Matthews, The Child’s Philosopher brings together groundbreaking essays by renowned American philosopher Gareth B. Matthews in three fields he helped to initiate: philosophy in children’s literature, philosophy for children, and philosophy of childhood. In addition, contemporary scholars critically assess Matthews’ pioneering efforts and his legacy. Matthews (1929-2011) was a specialist in ancient and medieval philosophy who had conversations with young children, discovering that they …Read more
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    Are Philosophy and Children Good for Each Other?
    Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children 16 (2): 9-11. 2002.
  •  138
    The authors describe the organization of a review of research literature on the relationship between Philosophy for/with Children (P4/wC) and religious education/education for spirituality (RE-EfS). They summarize a debate about whether the two are mutually enhancing or incompatible. They explain delimiting the scope of the project and present a grid of research questions used to analyze the literature. They summarize findings on how P4/wC is relevant to five categories of aims of RE-EfS: hermen…Read more
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    In close collaboration with the late Matthew Lipman, Ann Margaret Sharp pioneered the theory and practice of ‘the community of philosophical inquiry’ (CPI) as a way of practicing ‘Philosophy for Children’ and prepared thousands of philosophers and teachers throughout the world in this practice. In Community of Inquiry with Ann Margaret Sharp represents a long-awaited and much-needed anthology of Sharp’s insightful and influential scholarship, bringing her enduring legacy to new generations of ac…Read more
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  •  598
    Ethics education and the practice of wisdom
    In Elena K. Theodoropoulou, Didier Moreau & Christiane Gohier (eds.), Ethics in Education: Philosophical tracings and clearings, Laboratory of Research On Practical and Applied Philosophy, University of the Aegean. pp. 199-234. 2018.
    Ethics education in post-graduate philosophy departments and professional schools involves disciplinary knowledge and textual analysis but is mostly unconcerned with the ethical lives of students. Ethics or values education below college aims at shaping students’ ethical beliefs and conduct but lacks philosophical depth and methods of value inquiry. The «values transmission» approach to values education does not provide the opportunity for students to express doubt or criticism of the proffered …Read more
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    This rich and diverse collection offers a range of perspectives and practices of Philosophy for Children (P4C). P4C has become a significant educational and philosophical movement with growing impact on schools and educational policy. Its community of inquiry pedagogy has been taken up in community, adult, higher, further and informal educational settings around the world. The internationally sourced chapters offer research findings as well as insights into debates provoked by bringing children’…Read more
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    Pragmatist Value Inquiry
    Contemporary Pragmatism 3 (1): 105-126. 2006.
    This essay concerns relationships among value experience, value inquiry, and value theory. Five stages of value experience are distinguished, comprising a narrative of the attempt to enhance certain kinds of experience. A multi-level model of value inquiry is presented, beginning with improvement of immediate situations and moving to meta-level inquiry. Six pragmatist methods for conducing value inquiry are explained, which culminate in informed judgments of preference among qualitative experien…Read more
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    Editor’s Note
    Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 18 (2): 8-8. 1998.
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    The Procedurally Directive Approach to Teaching Controversial Issues
    Educational Theory 64 (6): 627-648. 2014.
    Recent articles on teaching controversial topics in schools have employed Michael Hand's distinction between “directive teaching,” in which teachers attempt to persuade students of correct positions on topics that are not rationally controversial, and “nondirective teaching,” in which teachers avoid persuading students on topics that are rationally controversial. However, the four methods of directive teaching discussed in the literature — explicit directive teaching, “steering,” “soft-directive…Read more
  •  55
    A Framework for Facilitating Classroom Dialogue
    Teaching Philosophy 30 (1): 59-84. 2007.
    Classroom dialogue can be democratic and evidence critical and creative thinking, yet lose momentum and direction without a plan for systematic inquiry. This article presents a six-stage framework for facilitating philosophical dialogue in pre-college and college classrooms, drawn from John Dewey and Matthew Lipman. Each stage involves particular kinds of thinking and aims at a specific product or task. The role of the facilitator—illustrated with suggestive scripts—is to help the participants m…Read more
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    Philosophy for Children and its Critics: A Mendham Dialogue
    Philosophy of Education 45 (2): 199-219. 2011.
    As conceived by founders Matthew Lipman and Ann Margaret Sharp, Philosophy for Children is a humanistic practice with roots in the Hellenistic tradition of philosophy as a way of life given to the search for meaning, in American pragmatism with its emphasis on qualitative experience, collaborative inquiry and democratic society, and in American and Soviet social learning theory. The programme has attracted overlapping and conflicting criticism from religious and social conservatives who don't wa…Read more
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    Introduction: Thinking Through Philosophy for Children
    with David Kennedy
    Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 19 (2): 4-10. 2000.
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    Introduction
    Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 18 (2): 4-7. 1998.
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    A Behavioral Pedagogy For The Community Of Inquiry
    Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 19 (1): 29-37. 1999.
    The concepts of inquiry, reasonableness, open-mindedness, critical thinking, creativity, caring, self-correction and democracy, as they relate to the community of philosophical inquiry practiced in Philosophy for Children, are analyzed in terms of behaviors, procedures and habits.
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    Philosophy and Children’s Religious Experience
    Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45 125-135. 2008.
    Philosophy serves to determine and clarifying the meaning of experience, and to make experience more meaningful, in both of the senses that Dewey distinguished: to broaden the range and amplify the value of qualities we experience, and to multiply their relevant ties to other experiences. Children’s experience is replete with philosophical meaning, and in facilitating children’s search for meaning, we are obliged to lead them in the directions that we ourselves have found most fruitful, though w…Read more
  •  67
    Inquiry, Democracy and Childhood: An Interview with Matthew Lipman
    Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 19 (2): 58-65. 2000.
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    Ethics Education and the Practice of Wisdom
    Teaching Ethics 9 (2): 105-130. 2009.
  •  14
    The Status of Rational Norms:: a Pragmatist Perspective
    Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 21 (1): 53-64. 2001.
    Cultural conservatives urge curricula for critical thinking and character education as means of shoring up rational and moral truths. Cultural critics challenge not only the objectivity of the standard curricula but the very norms of objectivity used to justify it. A pragmatist account of rational and other norms leaves most of those norms intact but makes their status provisional.
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    New Research on Programs for Classroom Discussion
    Questions: Philosophy for Young People 10 1-3. 2010.
    Gregory reports on a study by researchers from Ohio State and Pennsylvania State Universities that evaluated nine programs of classroom discussion. The programs were evaluated on their evidence of discourse features that have been shown in research literature to characterize quality discussions. Two programs, Philosophy for Children and Collaborative Reasoning, were found to provide the richest opportunities for individual and collective reasoning, due to the way teachers in these programs mod…Read more
  •  27
    Introduction: Thinking Through Philosophy for Children
    with David Kennedy
    Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 19 (2): 4-10. 2000.
  •  15
    Crash Course in Logic is a booklet designed to introduce basic principles of logic and critical thinking to students so they can better express their ideas. Many high school and college students have trouble constructing theoretical arguments and writing clearly because they are not acquainted with the forms of reasoning that are presented in this booklet. Intended as a supplement to other instructional material for a variety of courses, this booklet will guide students through a mini-course on …Read more
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    Practicing Democracy: Social Intelligence and Philosophical Practice
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2): 163-176. 2004.
    In pragmatist social theory communities faced with significant troubles or opportunities inquire after their advantage and reconstruct their habits and their environments. Three programs of philosophical practice—Socratic Dialogue, the Philosophy Café and Philosophy for Children—cultivate citizenly virtues necessary for this process. They facilitate dialogue and open-ended inquiry, give practice in cognitive and social skills, and institute shared authority. However, certain factors limit the pr…Read more
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    Introduction: Ethics Education as Philosophical Practice
    Teaching Ethics 15 (1): 19-34. 2015.
    John Dewey wrote of moral education as growth from impulsive behavior to a “reflective morality,” involving the pursuit of ends-in-view identified through practices of critical reflection and social interaction. The essays in this section explore a variety of such practices as a philosophical approach to K–12 ethics education. The essays draw on, and contribute to three educational movements that aim for particular kinds of reflective consciousness and agency. Socratic Pedagogy engages students …Read more
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    Ethics Education as Philosophical Practice in advance
    Teaching Ethics 9 (2): 105-130. 2009.
    Ethics education in post-graduate philosophy departments and professional schools involves disciplinary knowledge and textual analysis but is mostly unconcerned with the ethical lives of students. Ethics or values education below college aims at shaping students’ ethical beliefs and conduct but lacks philosophical depth and methods of value inquiry. The «values transmission» approach to values education does not provide the opportunity for students to express doubt or criticism of the proffered …Read more