•  8
    Is the non-identity problem relevant to public health and policy? An online survey
    with Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, and Dominic Wilkinson
    BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1): 46. 2019.
    The non-identity problem arises when our actions in the present could change which people will exist in the future, for better or worse. Is it morally better to improve the lives of specific future people, as compared to changing which people exist for the better? Affecting the timing of fetuses being conceived is one case where present actions change the identity of future people. This is relevant to questions of public health policy, as exemplified in some responses to the Zika epidemic. There…Read more
  • Editorial
    Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4): 159-161. 2014.
  •  4
  •  21
    Focus on infectious disease
    Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4): 227-228. 2005.
  •  7
    Should practice and policy be revised to allow for risk-proportional payment to human challenge study participants?
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik
    Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12): 835-836. 2020.
    Human infection challenge studies provide illuminating case studies for several ongoing debates in research ethics, including those related to research risks and payment of participants. Grimwade et al 1 add to previous public engagement, qualitative evidence and philosophical literature on these topics.1–8 The authors advocate revision of research payment policy and practice based on their main finding that members of the public endorse ex ante payment of participants proportional to research-r…Read more
  • Editorial
    Monash Bioethics Review 32 (1-2): 1-2. 2014.
  •  5
    Human infection challenge studies involve intentionally infecting research participants with pathogens. There have been recent calls for more HCS to be conducted in low-income and middle-income countries, where many relevant diseases are endemic. HCS in general, and HCS in LMICs in particular, raise numerous ethical issues. This paper summarises the findings of a project that explored ethical and regulatory issues related to LMIC HCS via a review of relevant literature and 45 qualitative intervi…Read more
  •  6
    Invisible epidemics: ethics and asymptomatic infection (review)
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik
    Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1): 1-16. 2020.
    Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease, and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This phenomenon has a range of ethical implications for clinical medicine, public health, and infectious disease research. The implications of asymptomatic infection are especially significa…Read more
  • At the Centre
    Monash Bioethics Review 31 (2): 31-36. 2013.
  •  10
    Coronavirus Human Infection Challenge Studies: Assessing Potential Benefits and Risks
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik and George S. Heriot
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4): 709-715. 2020.
    Human infection challenge studies have been proposed as a means to accelerate SARS-CoV2 vaccine development and thereby help to mitigate a prolonged global public health crisis. A key criterion for the ethical acceptability of SARS-CoV2 HCS is that potential benefits outweigh risks. Although the assessment of risks and benefits is meant to be a standard part of research ethics review, systematic comparisons are particularly important in the context of SARS-CoV2 HCS in light of the significant po…Read more
  •  12
    Ethics, health policy, and Zika: From emergency to global epidemic?
    with Euzebiusz Jamrozik
    Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5): 343-348. 2018.
    Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation, with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues rais…Read more
  •  6
    Conflicting clinical duties
    Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (3): 213-214. 2015.
  • The dual-use dilemma-Reply
    Hastings Center Report 37 (5): 6-7. 2007.
  •  6
    Neugenics?
    Monash Bioethics Review 19 (4): 9-33. 2000.
    Many are worried that the Human Genome Project will lead to a revival of eugenics. In this essay I examine the troublesome history of the ‘old eugenics’ which included the Nazi program of ‘Racial Hygiene’ and the sterilization of the ‘feebleminded’ in the United States of America. A ‘new eugenics’, involving prenatal diagnosis and the selective abortion of fetuses likely to develop into severely disabled infants, on the other hand, is claimed by many to be morally acceptable. If this is correct,…Read more
  •  6
    Ethics, Economics, and Aids in Africa
    Developing World Bioethics 4 (1): 96-105. 2004.
    AIDS in the Twenty‐First Century: Disease and Globalization, by Tony Barnett and Alan Whiteside. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002. 416 pp. US$19.95 The Moral Economy of AIDS in South Africa, by Nicoli Nattrass. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 222 pp. US$30.00
  •  26
    Justice, infectious diseases and globalization
    with S. Benatar and G. Brock
    In S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.), Global Health and Global Health Ethics, Cambridge University Press. pp. 89--96. 2011.
  •  36
    Influenza Vaccination Strategies Should Target Children
    with Ben Bambery, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Alberto Giubilini, Andrew J. Pollard, and Julian Savulescu
    Public Health Ethics 11 (2): 221-234. 2018.
    Strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates have typically targeted healthcare professionals and individuals in various high-risk groups such as the elderly. We argue that they should focus on increasing vaccination rates in children. Because children suffer higher influenza incidence rates than any other demographic group, and are major drivers of seasonal influenza epidemics, we argue that influenza vaccination strategies that serve to increase uptake rates in children are likely to be …Read more
  •  44
    Moral uncertainty and the moral status of early human life
    Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5): 324-324. 2013.
    Because a newborn baby does not have sufficiently complex psychological capacities to have a concept of continuation of life, according to Tooley, it cannot desire continuation of life, and thus cannot have a right to it.1 A similar position has been advocated by Kuhse and Singer2 ,3—and, more recently, by Giubilini and Minerva.4Key assumptions of Tooley are that being able to desire something is a necessary condition of having a right to it and having a concept of something is a necessary condi…Read more
  •  5
    Practical bioethics
    Monash Bioethics Review 34 (1): 1-2. 2016.
  •  20
    Necessity and least infringement conditions in public health ethics
    with Timothy Allen
    Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4): 525-535. 2017.
    The influential public health ethics framework proposed by Childress et al. includes five “justificatory conditions,” two of which are “necessity” and “least infringement.” While the framework points to important moral values, we argue it is redundant for it to list both necessity and least infringement because they are logically equivalent. However, it is ambiguous whether Childress et al. would endorse this view, or hold the two conditions distinct. This ambiguity has resulted in confusion in …Read more
  •  6
    In that case: response
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (1): 52-52. 2004.
  •  18
    Smallpox revisited?
    American Journal of Bioethics 3 (1). 2003.
    This article reviews the history of smallpox and ethical issues that arise with its threat as a biological weapon. Smallpox killed more people than any infectious disease in history-and perhaps three times more people in the 20th Century than were killed by all the wars of that period. Following a WHO-sponsored global vaccination campaign, smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1980. It has since been revealed that the Soviet Union, until its fall in the early 1990s, manufactured tens of…Read more
  •  6
    Moral uncertainty and the moral status of early human life
    Monash Bioethics Review 30 (1): 52-57. 2012.
  •  17
    Universal norms and conflicting values
    Developing World Bioethics 5 (3): 267-273. 2005.
    ABSTRACTWhile UNESCO's Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights highlights appropriate ethical values, its principles are stated in absolute terms and conflict with one another. The Draft Declaration fails to sufficiently address the possibility of conflict between principles, and it provides no real guidance on how to strike a balance between them in cases where conflict occurs. The document's inadequate treatment of conflicting values is revealed by examination of cases where …Read more
  •  22
    Bioterrorism and smallpox planning: information and voluntary vaccination
    Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6): 558-560. 2004.
    Although smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, there are fears that stocks of the virus manufactured for military purposes by the Soviet Union may have fallen into the hands of “rogue nations” or terrorists. Worries about bioterrorism have thus sparked debate about whether or not the smallpox vaccine, which can be dangerous, should be offered to the general public. Meaningful public debate on this issue requires expert information about the likelihood that the virus will in fact be used as a…Read more