•  228
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health disaster driven largely by antibiotic use in human health care. Doctors considering whether to prescribe antibiotics face an ethical conflict between upholding individual patient health and advancing public health aims. Existing literature mainly examines whether patients awaiting consultations desire or expect to receive antibiotic prescriptions, but does not report views of the wider public regarding conditions under which doctors should…Read more
  •  126
    Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated—including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccinatio…Read more
  •  114
    Moderate eugenics and human enhancement
    Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1): 3-12. 2014.
    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics—where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effe…Read more
  •  111
    Kidney Sales and the Burden of Proof
    Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (3): 32-53. 2019.
    Janet Radcliffe Richards’ The Ethics of Transplants outlines a novel framework for moral inquiry in practical contexts and applies it to the topic of paid living kidney donation. In doing so, Radcliffe Richards makes two key claims: that opponents of organ markets bear the burden of proof, and that this burden has not yet been satisfied. This paper raises four related objections to Radcliffe Richards’ methodological framework, focusing largely on how Radcliffe Richards uses this framework in her…Read more
  •  87
    Ethics and infectious disease
    Bioethics 19 (3). 2005.
    This seminal collection on the ethical issues associated with infectious disease is the first book to correct bioethics’ glaring neglect of this subject. Timely in view of public concern about SARS, AIDS, avian flu, bioterrorism and antibiotic resistance. Brings together new and classic papers by prominent figures. Tackles the ethical issues associated with issues such as quarantine, vaccination policy, pandemic planning, biodefense, wildlife disease and health care in developing countries
  •  84
    An Argument against Arguments for Enhancement
    Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1). 2007.
  •  81
    A moderate pluralist approach to public health policy and ethics
    Public Health Ethics 2 (2): 195-205. 2009.
    Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics, The Australian National University, LPO Box 8260, ANU, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Email: michael.selgelid{at}anu.edu.au ' + u + '@ ' + d + ' '/ /- ->. Home page: http: //www.cappe.edu.au/staff/michael-selgelid.htmThis article advocates the development of a moderate pluralist theory of political philosophy that recognizes that utility, liberty and equality are legitimate, independent social values and that none should have absolute priority over…Read more
  •  75
    Emergency Ethics (edited book)
    Ashgate. 2012.
    Emergencies are extreme events which threaten to cause massive disruption to society and negatively affect the physical and psychological well-being of its members. They raise important practical and theoretical questions about how we should treat each other in times of "crisis". The articles selected for this volume focus on the nature and significance of emergencies; ethical issues in emergency public policy and law; war, terrorism and supreme emergencies; and public health and humanitarian em…Read more
  •  59
    Ethical Criteria for Human Challenge Studies in Infectious Diseases: Table 1
    with Ben Bambery, Charles Weijer, Julian Savulescu, and Andrew J. Pollard
    Public Health Ethics 9 (1): 92-103. 2016.
    Purposeful infection of healthy volunteers with a microbial pathogen seems at odds with acceptable ethical standards, but is an important contemporary research avenue used to study infectious diseases and their treatments. Generally termed ‘controlled human infection studies’, this research is particularly useful for fast tracking the development of candidate vaccines and may provide unique insight into disease pathogenesis otherwise unavailable. However, scarce bioethical literature is currentl…Read more
  •  58
    Dual-use research codes of conduct: Lessons from the life sciences (review)
    NanoEthics 3 (3): 175-183. 2009.
    This paper considers multiple meanings of the expression ‘dual use’ and examines lessons to be learned from the life sciences when considering ethical and policy issues associated with the dual-use nature of nanotechnology (and converging technologies). After examining recent controversial dual-use experiments in the life sciences, it considers the potential roles and limitations of science codes of conduct for addressing concerns associated with dual-use science and technology. It concludes tha…Read more
  •  58
    : Some scientific research should not be published. The risks to national security and public health override the social benefits of disseminating scientific results openly. Unfortunately, scientists themselves are not in a position to know which studies to withhold from public view, as the National Research Council has proposed. Yet neither can government alone be trusted to balance the competing interests at stake
  •  52
    Infectious Disease Ethics: Limiting Liberty in Contexts of Contagion
    with Angela R. McLean, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, and Julian Savulescu
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2): 149-152. 2009.
  •  44
    Moral uncertainty and the moral status of early human life
    Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5): 324-324. 2013.
    Because a newborn baby does not have sufficiently complex psychological capacities to have a concept of continuation of life, according to Tooley, it cannot desire continuation of life, and thus cannot have a right to it.1 A similar position has been advocated by Kuhse and Singer2 ,3—and, more recently, by Giubilini and Minerva.4Key assumptions of Tooley are that being able to desire something is a necessary condition of having a right to it and having a concept of something is a necessary condi…Read more
  •  44
    Ethics and drug resistance
    Bioethics 21 (4). 2007.
  •  42
    The Case for Mandatory Flu Vaccination of Children
    with Ben Bambery, Hannah Maslen, Andrew J. Pollard, and Julian Savulescu
    American Journal of Bioethics 13 (9). 2013.
    No abstract
  •  37
    Module four: Standards of care and clinical trials
    Developing World Bioethics 5 (1). 2005.
    ABSTRACTThis module examines ethical debates about the level of care that should be provided to human research participants. Particular attention is placed on the question of what should be considered an ethically acceptable control arm. You will also learn what relevant international and domestic regulatory documents say about standards of care
  •  36
    Influenza Vaccination Strategies Should Target Children
    with Ben Bambery, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Alberto Giubilini, Andrew J. Pollard, and Julian Savulescu
    Public Health Ethics 11 (2): 221-234. 2018.
    Strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates have typically targeted healthcare professionals and individuals in various high-risk groups such as the elderly. We argue that they should focus on increasing vaccination rates in children. Because children suffer higher influenza incidence rates than any other demographic group, and are major drivers of seasonal influenza epidemics, we argue that influenza vaccination strategies that serve to increase uptake rates in children are likely to be …Read more
  •  34
    Zika, contraception and the non‐identity problem
    with Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, and Dominic J. C. Wilkinson
    Developing World Bioethics 17 (3): 173-204. 2017.
    The 2016 outbreak of the Zika arbovirus was associated with large numbers of cases of the newly-recognised Congenital Zika Syndrome. This novel teratogenic epidemic raises significant ethical and practical issues. Many of these arise from strategies used to avoid cases of CZS, with contraception in particular being one proposed strategy that is atypical in epidemic control. Using contraception to reduce the burden of CZS has an ethical complication: interventions that impact the timing of concep…Read more
  •  33
    Freedom and moral enhancement
    Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (4): 215-216. 2014.
    This issue of Journal of Medical Ethics includes a pair of papers debating the implications of moral bioenhancement for human freedom–and, especially, the question of whether moral enhancement should potentially be compulsory. In earlier writings Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu argue that compulsory moral bioenhancement may be necessary to prevent against catastrophic harms that might result from immoral behaviour.1 In “Voluntary moral enhancement and the survival-at-any-cost bias” Vojin Rak…Read more
  •  29
    In this article, we raise ethical concerns about the potential misuse of open-source biology : biological research and development that progresses through an organisational model of radical openness, deskilling, and innovation. We compare this organisational structure to that of the open-source software model, and detail salient ethical implications of this model. We demonstrate that OSB, in virtue of its commitment to openness, may be resistant to governance attempts
  •  28
    Commentary: The Ethics of Dangerous Discovery
    Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (4): 444-447. 2006.
    The American Medical Association's Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs' new “Guidelines to Prevent the Malevolent Use of Biomedical Research” are both timely and appropriate. These guidelines are a product of the increasing realization of the “dual use” potential of life science discoveries. Although biomedical research usually aims at the development of new medicines, vaccines, diagnostics, and so on, the very same discoveries that could benefit humankind in these ways also often have impli…Read more
  •  26
    Improving global health: Counting reasons why
    Developing World Bioethics 8 (2): 115-125. 2008.
    This paper examines cumulative ethical and self-interested reasons why wealthy developed nations should be motivated to do more to improve health care in developing countries. Egalitarian and human rights reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (1) promote equality of opportunity, (2) improve the situation of the worst-off, (3) promote respect of the human right to have one's most basic needs met, and (4) reduce undeserved inequalities in well-…Read more
  •  26
    Justice, infectious diseases and globalization
    with S. Benatar and G. Brock
    In S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.), Global Health and Global Health Ethics, Cambridge University Press. pp. 89--96. 2011.
  •  25
    A Moderate Approach to Enhancement
    Philosophy Now 91 12-13. 2012.
  •  24
    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity, sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether just…Read more
  •  23
    Ethics and eugenic enhancement
    Poiesis and Praxis 1 (4): 239-261. 2003.
    Suppose we accept prenatal diagnosis and the selective abortion of fetuses that test positive for severe genetic disorders to be both morally and socially acceptable. Should we consider prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion (or other genetic interventions such as preimplantation diagnosis, genetic therapy, cloning, etc.) for nontherapeutic purposes to be acceptable as well? On the one hand, the social aims to promote liberty in general, and reproductive liberty in particular, provide reason …Read more
  •  22
    Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis
    Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4): 923-964. 2016.
    Gain-of-function research involves experimentation that aims or is expected to increase the transmissibility and/or virulence of pathogens. Such research, when conducted by responsible scientists, usually aims to improve understanding of disease causing agents, their interaction with human hosts, and/or their potential to cause pandemics. The ultimate objective of such research is to better inform public health and preparedness efforts and/or development of medical countermeasures. Despite these…Read more
  •  22
    Bioterrorism and smallpox planning: information and voluntary vaccination
    Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6): 558-560. 2004.
    Although smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, there are fears that stocks of the virus manufactured for military purposes by the Soviet Union may have fallen into the hands of “rogue nations” or terrorists. Worries about bioterrorism have thus sparked debate about whether or not the smallpox vaccine, which can be dangerous, should be offered to the general public. Meaningful public debate on this issue requires expert information about the likelihood that the virus will in fact be used as a…Read more