University of Oklahoma
George Mason University
  • University of Oklahoma
    Department of Philosophy
    Retired faculty
  • George Mason University
    Mercatus Center
    Professor (Part-time)
University of Toronto, St. George Campus
Graduate Department of Philosophy
PhD, 1986
Norman, Oklahoma, United States of America
  •  42
    Friendship, Justice and Supererogation
    American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (2). 1985.
  • The Ethical Significance of Friendship
    Dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada). 1986.
    Friendship is a cardinal human value, and requires both the "other-regarding" and the "self-regarding" virtues. Thus an analysis of friendship can illuminate the nature of morality, and provide a test of adequacy of rival moral theories. But even when it is recognized that friendship involves virtue, the role of justice is usually ignored, thanks to the idea that justice is an impersonal, "public" virtue. But justice is crucially important in friendship, and is connected as well with benevolence…Read more
  •  142
    Friends as ends in themselves
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (1): 1-23. 1987.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research is currently published by International Phenomenological Society
  •  217
    I take friendship to be a practical and emotional relationship marked by mutual and (more-or-less) equal goodwill, liking, and pleasure. Friendship can exist between siblings, lovers, parent and adult child, as well as between otherwise unrelated people. Some friendships are valued chiefly for their usefulness. Such friendships are instrumental or means friendships. Other friendships are valued chiefly for their own sakes. Such friendships are noninstrumental or end friendships. In this paper I …Read more
  •  19
    Altruism versus self-interest: Sometimes a false dichotomy*: Neera Kapur Badhwar
    Social Philosophy and Policy 10 (1): 90-117. 1993.
    In the moral philosophy of the last two centuries, altruism of one kind or another has typically been regarded as identical with moral concern. When self-regarding duties have been recognized, motivation by duty has been sharply distinguished from motivation by self-interest . Accordingly, from Kant, Mill, and Sidgwick to Rawls, Nagel, and Gauthier, concern for our own interests, whether long-term or short-term, has typically been regarded as intrinsically nonmoral. So, for example, although Tho…Read more
  •  62
    The circumstances of justice: Pluralism, community, and friendship
    Journal of Political Philosophy 1 (3). 1993.
    Liberal political theory sees justice as the "first virtue" of a good society, the virtue that guides individuals' conceptions of their own good, and protects the equal liberty of all to pursue their ends, so long as these ends and pursuits are just. But ever since Marx's declaration that "liberty as a right of man is not founded upon the relations between man and man, but rather upon the separation of man from man...,"i liberal society has been frequently criticized for falling seriously short …Read more
  •  10
    The Circumstances of Justice: Pluralism, Community, and Friendship
    Journal of Political Philosophy 1 (3): 250-276. 1993.
  •  115
    Friendship: A Philosophical Reader (edited book)
    Cornell University Press. 1993.
    Introduction: The Nature and Signif1cance of Friendship Neera Kapur Badhwar Philosophers have long recognized that friendship plays a central role in a ...
  •  84
    Experiments in living
    The Philosophers' Magazine 35 (35): 58-61. 2006.
  •  42
    Hume Studies Referees, 2004–2005
    with Donald Ainslie, Julia Annas, Margaret Atherton, Donald Lm Baxter, Martin Bell, Lorraine Besser-Jones, Richard Bett, Simon Blackburn, and M. A. Box
    Hume Studies 31 (2): 385-387. 2005.
  •  14
    Review of William S. Hamrick, Kindness and the Good Society: Connections of the Heart (review)
    Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (9). 2002.
  •  44
    Moral Agency, Commitment, and Impartiality*: NEERA K. BADHWAR
    Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (1): 1-26. 1996.
    Liberal political philosophy presupposes a moral theory according to which the ability to assess and choose conceptions of the good from a universal and impartial moral standpoint is central to the individual's moral identity. This viewpoint is standardly understood by liberals as that of a rational human agent. Such an agent is able to reflect on her ends and pursuits, including those she strongly identifies with, and to understand and take into account the basic interests of others. From the p…Read more
  •  134
    International aid: When giving becomes a vice
    Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (1): 69-101. 2006.
    Peter Singer and Peter Unger argue that moral decency requires giving away all one's “surplus” for the relief or prevention of “absolute poverty,” because not doing so is analogous to refusing to save a drowning child to avoid making one's clothes muddy. I argue that there is a crucial disanalogy between the two cases and, moreover, that there are four independent moral objections to their thesis: it is monomaniacal in ignoring the variety of morally worthy ideals and elevating self-sacrificial …Read more
  •  12
    Comments on In Praise of Desire
    Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (2): 433-437. 2016.
  •  227
    The Milgram Experiments, Learned Helplessness, and Character Traits
    The Journal of Ethics 13 (2-3): 257-289. 2009.
    The Milgram and other situationist experiments support the real-life evidence that most of us are highly akratic and heteronomous, and that Aristototelian virtue is not global. Indeed, like global theoretical knowledge, global virtue is psychologically impossible because it requires too much of finite human beings with finite powers in a finite life; virtue can only be domain-specific. But unlike local, situation-specific virtues, domain-specific virtues entail some general understanding of what…Read more
  •  14
    1.1 Are commercial societies unfriendly to friendship? Many critics of commercial societies, from both the left and the right, have thought so. They claim that the freemarket system of property rights, freedom of contract, and other liberty rights – the “negative” right of individuals to peacefully pursue their own ends – is impersonal and dehumanizing, or even inherently divisive and adversarial. Yet (their complaint goes) the psychology and morality of markets and liberty rights pervade far to…Read more
  •  8
    Experiments in living
    The Philosophers' Magazine 35 58-61. 2006.
  • Ayn Rand's Contribution to Philosophy
    Reason Papers 23 75-78. 1998.
  •  106
    Replies to my Commentators
    Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (1): 227-240. 2016.
  •  87
    1.1 Are commercial societies unfriendly to friendship? Many critics of commercial societies, from both the left and the right, have thought so. They claim that the free-market system of property rights, freedom of contract, and other liberty rights – the “negative” right of individuals to peacefully pursue their own ends – is impersonal and dehumanizing, or even inherently divisive and adversarial. Yet (their complaint goes) the psychology and morality of markets and liberty rights pervade far t…Read more
  •  14
    I. Introduction 1.1 Realism about oneself and one’s circumstances has long been regarded as a hallmark of mental health and authentic happiness by philosophers and psychologists. It has also long invited skepticism from some quarters. Recently, this skepticism has found new support in the work of some social psychologists, who claim that far from being essential for mental health or happiness, realism can be bad for you. Certain positive illusions about yourself, they say, are more conducive to …Read more
  •  94
    I. Introduction Sex has been thought to reveal the most profound truths about individuals, laying bare their deepest desires and fears to their partners and themselves. In ‘Carnal Knowledge,’ Wendy Doniger states that this view is to be found in the texts of ancient India, in the Hebrew Bible, in Renaissance England and Europe, as well as in contemporary culture, including Hollywood films.1 Indeed, according to Josef Pieper, the original, Hebrew, meaning of `carnal knowledge’ was `immediate toge…Read more
  •  35
    This book offers a new argument for the ancient claim that well-being as the highest prudential good -- eudaimonia -- consists of happiness in a life according to virtue. Virtue is a source of happiness, but happiness also requires external goods.