•  68
    phers] to be a demonstration of the fact that the human species (and in every case the species of all generable and corruptible individuals) began to exist at a time when previously it had not existed at all, a question is raised: whether, following the Philosopher’s method, the human species (and in every case any given species of generable and corruptible [individuals]) began to exist at a time when previously it had not existed at all.
  •  7
    (A sunny town square somewhere in the Peloponnese. Anna Kalypsas and Mel Etitis are standing, holding open books; Kathy Merinos is watching and listening to them, also with an open book in front of her. Theo Logos appears and spots them. He stops to listen.).
  •  33
    Le rôle des concepts selon Ockham
    Philosophiques 32 (2): 435-447. 2005.
    Philosophiques 32 (2005), 435-447. [An English version is available here.].
  •  117
    Duns Scotus on Singular Essences
    Medioevo 30 111-137. 2005.
    Socrates, for example, has an essence that includes more than his human nature, which is his specific essence; he has an essence proper to himself alone, an essence that cannot be had by anyone else. Although Socrates does have singular (individualized) forms, his singular essence is not a form—there is no form Socrateity for the singular essence parallelling the form humanity for the specific essence. Instead, Socrates has his singular essence in consequence of being an individual, that is, in …Read more
  •  29
    Unintended Changes in Cognition, Mood, and Behavior Arising from Cell-Based Interventions for Neurological Conditions: Ethical Challenges
    with P. S. Duggan, A. W. Siegel, D. M. Blass, H. Bok, J. T. Coyle, R. Faden, J. Finkel, J. D. Gearhart, H. T. Greely, A. Hillis, A. Hoke, R. Johnson, M. Johnston, J. Kahn, and D. Kerr
    American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5): 31-36. 2009.
    The prospect of using cell-based interventions to treat neurological conditions raises several important ethical and policy questions. In this target article, we focus on issues related to the unique constellation of traits that characterize CBIs targeted at the central nervous system. In particular, there is at least a theoretical prospect that these cells will alter the recipients' cognition, mood, and behavior—brain functions that are central to our concept of the self. The potential for such…Read more
  •  39
    Two Conceptions of Experience
    Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (2): 203-226. 2003.
  •  4
    The Cambridge History of Medieval Philosophy (review)
    Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (4): 612-613. 2012.
  •  56
    That it is: According to the Commentator, Met. 7 com. 11 ([Iuntina 8 fol. 76r]): The definition is the same as the substance of the thing. Hence it is in some way outside the soul, and consequently all its parts are in some way outside the soul. But the definition is composed of universals. Hence [the universal is outside the soul]
  •  68
    In one corner Socrates; in the other, on the mat, his cat Felix. Socrates, of course, thinks (correctly) that Felix the Cat is on the mat. But there’s the rub. For Socrates to think that Felix is on the mat, he has to be able to think about Felix, that is, he has to have some sort of cognitive grasp of an individual — and not just any individual, but Felix himself. How is that possible? What is going on when we think about things?
  •  115
    Mediaeval psychological theory was a “faculty psychology”: a confederation of semiautonomous sub-personal agents, the interaction of which constitutes our psychological experience. One such faculty was intellective appetite, that is, the will. On what grounds was the will taken to be a distinct faculty? After a brief survey of Aristotle's criteria for identifying and distinguishing mental faculties, I look in some detail at the mainstream mediaeval view, given clear expression by Thomas Aquinas,…Read more
  •  1
    Two Conceptions of Experience
    Medieval Philosophy & Theology 11 (2): 203-226. 2003.
  •  32
    [1] In twelve quite demanding chapters, outstanding scholars provide an overall view of the key issues of Scotus’s philosophical thought. To this a very concise introduction is added, concerning the life and works of John Duns (very good, especially the survey of works and the information on critical editions etc.). Throughout the book, I find the information clear and the difficult topics well explained. Moreover, the volume gives a quick entrance to the vast literature. Among the topics discus…Read more
  •  95
    Aristotle was the first thinker to devise a logical system. He drew upon the emphasis on universal definition found in Socrates, the use of reductio ad absurdum in Zeno of Elea, claims about propositional structure and negation in Parmenides and Plato, and the body of argumentative techniques found in legal reasoning and geometrical proof. Yet the theory presented in Aristotle’s five treatises known as the Organon—the Categories, the De interpretatione, the Prior Analytics, the Posterior Analyti…Read more
  •  6
    1 Scotus on Metaphysics
    In Thomas Williams (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus, Cambridge University Press. pp. 15. 2003.
  •  25
    B      opens his discussion of the problem of universals, in his second commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, with a destructive dilemma: genera and species either exist or are concepts; but they can neither exist nor be soundly conceived; therefore the enquiry into them should be abandoned (In Isag. maior . ). Boethius’ strategy to get around this dilemma is well known. He follows the lead of Alexander of Aphrodisias, distinguishing several ways in which genera and species can be conceive…Read more
  •  81
    In the first volume of Capital, Marx introduces a labor theory of value. The theory is supposed to form the basis of his “laying bare” the “inner workings” of capitalism. The theory rests on two claims, and at the outset Marx uses it to explain four features of capitalist production. Yet by the end of the final volume of Capital, he abandons both claims and offers alternative accounts of all four features of capitalism. We hold that Marx’s introduction of the labor theory of value is not the presen…Read more
  •  5
    Chapter 10. Duns Scotus on the Reality of Self-Change
    In James G. Lennox & Mary Louise Gill (eds.), Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, Princeton University Press. pp. 227-290. 2017.
  •  55
    Boethius: The First of the Scholastics
    Carmina Philosophiae 16 23-50. 2007.
    forthcoming in Carmina philosophiae
  •  2
    The works translated here deal with two major themes in the thinking of St Augustine : free will and divine grace. On the one hand, free will enables human beings to make their own choices; on the other hand, God's grace is required for these choices to be efficacious. 'On the Free Choice of the Will', 'On Grace and Free Choice', 'On Reprimand and Grace' and 'On the Gift of Perseverance' set out Augustine's theory of human responsibility, and sketch a subtle reconciliation of will and grace. Thi…Read more
  •  48
    Augustine’s Encounter with Neoplatonism
    Modern Schoolman 82 (3): 213-226. 2005.
  • Abelard's Answers to Porphyry
    Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 18 249-270. 2007.
    Abelardo eredita dall'Isagoge di Porfirio una questione filosofica fondamentale, relativa al problema degli universali, posto al centro della metafisica. Abelardo si pone subito fuori da questa linea interpretativa. L'A. esamina le risposte di Abelardo ai quattro quesiti di Porfirio formulati all'inizio dell'Isagoge punto per punto, attraverso l'esame di Dialectica, Logica «Ingredientibus» nella parte relativa al commento all'Isagoge, in rapporto con il Commentarius maior in Isagogen Porphyrii d…Read more
  •  3
    Augustine’s Encounter with Neoplatonism
    Modern Schoolman 82 (3): 213-226. 2005.
  • Two Conceptions of Experience
    Journal of Nietzsche Studies 11 (2): 203-226. 2003.
  • Forming the Mind (edited book)
    Springer Verlag. 2005.
  •  51
  •  17
    Novelists and other producers of fiction can make many mistakes (including becoming novelists and other producers of fiction), but there are three kinds of mistake that stem from the writer's ignorance. First, there's the purely external mistake, which occurs in the..
  •  123
    One answer: Because medieval philosophy is just the continuation of ancient philosophy by other means—the Latin language and the Catholic Church— and, as Wallace Matson pointed out some time ago, the mind-body problem isn’t ancient
  • Reaction: Against the Modern World
    Imprint Academic. 2012.
    In this book the author explores the different facets of reaction and suggests that there is more to the concept than just a gratuitous insult. He argues that reaction depends on two things: first, a particular view of the world that favours tradition and the way that things are; and second, the disposition to avoid change and its consequences and so to prefer a settled and steady life. These two facets can be articulated as a coherent set of arguments, which have indeed been made by thinkers of…Read more