Washington University in St. Louis
Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology Program
PhD, 1978
Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America
Areas of Specialization
Applied Ethics
Normative Ethics
  •  2071
    Ending the so-called 'Friedman-Freeman'debate
    Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2): 153-190. 2008.
  •  1083
    A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation
    Perspectives in Business Ethics Sie 3 144. 2001.
  •  464
    The Impossibility of the Separation Thesis
    Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4): 541-548. 2008.
    Distinguishing “business” concerns from “ethical” values is not only an unfruitful and meaningless task, it is also an impossible endeavor. Nevertheless, fruitless attempts to separate facts from values produce detrimental second-order effects, both for theory and practice, and should therefore be abandoned. We highlight examples of exemplary research that integrate economic and moral considerations, and point the way to a business ethics discipline that breaks new groundby putting ideas and nar…Read more
  •  438
    The Politics of Stakeholder Theory: Some Future Directions
    Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 409-421. 1994.
    The purpose of this paper is to enter the conversation about stakeholder theory with the goal of clarifying certain foundational issues. I want to show, along with Boatright, that there is no stakeholder paradox, and that the principle on which such a paradox is built, the Separation Thesis, is nicely self-serving to business and ethics academics. If we give up such a thesis we find there is no stakeholder theory but that stakeholder theory becomes a genre that is quite rich. It becomes one of m…Read more
  •  250
    Stakeholder theory: A libertarian defense
    with Robert A. Phillips
    Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3): 331-350. 2002.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions o…Read more
  •  147
    Some problems with employee monitoring
    with Kirsten Martin
    Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4): 353-361. 2003.
    Employee monitoring has raised concerns from all areas of society - business organizations, employee interest groups, privacy advocates, civil libertarians, lawyers, professional ethicists, and every combination possible. Each advocate has its own rationale for or against employee monitoring whether it be economic, legal, or ethical. However, no matter what the form of reasoning, seven key arguments emerge from the pool of analysis. These arguments have been used equally from all sides of the de…Read more
  •  133
    Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-offs or Value Creation (review)
    Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1): 7-9. 2010.
  •  103
    Values, Authenticity, and Responsible Leadership
    with Ellen R. Auster
    Journal of Business Ethics 98 (S1): 15-23. 2011.
    The recent financial crisis has prompted questioning of our basic ideas about capitalism and the role of business in society. As scholars are calling for “responsible leadership” to become more of the norm, organizations are being pushed to enact new values, such as “responsibility” and “sustainability,” and pay more attention to the effects of their actions on their stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to open up a line of research in business ethics on the concept of “ authenticity ” as …Read more
  •  81
    Business Ethics at the Millennium
    Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1): 169-180. 2000.
    Business ethics, as a discipline, appears to be at a crossroads. Down one avenue lies more of the same: mostly philosophers takingwhat they know of ethics and ethical theory and applying it to business. There is a long tradition of scholars working in the area known as “business and society” or “social issues in management.” Most of these scholars are trained as social scientists and teach in business schools. Their raison d’etre has been admirable: trying to get executives and students of busin…Read more
  •  79
    Values and the foundations of strategic management
    with Daniel R. Gilbert and Edwin Hartman
    Journal of Business Ethics 7 (11). 1988.
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of values in strategic management. We discuss recent criticisms of the concept of strategy and argue that the concept of value helps reconcile these criticisms with traditional models of strategy. We show that Andrews' model of corporate strategy rightly takes morally significant values to be essential to effective management. We show how the notion of value can be clarified and used in research into various conceptions of corporate morality.
  •  78
    Poverty and the Politics of Capitalism
    The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998 31-35. 1998.
    1. Here’s a way to think about poverty. People who live in poverty do so because they have few opportunities to pull themselves up by their bootstraps. In fact the gap between rich and poor has increased in recent times due to the more wholesale adoption of capitalist practices around the world. The institutions of business and government conspire to give the poor a Hobson’s choice of minimal wage McJobs or unemployment. Neglect of both urban ghettoes and the rural poor has been systematic, if n…Read more
  •  70
    The ethics of greenmail
    with Daniel R. Gilbert and Carol Jacobson
    Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3). 1987.
    In the contemporary flurry of hostile corporate takeover activity, the ethics of the practice of greenmail have been called into question. The authors provide an account of greenmail in parallel with Daniel Ellsberg's conception of blackmail, as consisting of two conditions: a threat condition and a compliance condition.The analysis then proceeds to consider two questions: Is all greenmail morally wrong? Are all hostile takeovers morally wrong? The authors conclude that there is no basis for ans…Read more
  •  67
    Stakeholder Theory: 25 Years Later
    Philosophy of Management 8 (3): 97-107. 2009.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom…Read more
  •  66
    Stakeholder Theory, Fact/Value Dichotomy, and the Normative Core: How Wall Street Stops the Ethics Conversation (review)
    with Lauren S. Purnell
    Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1): 109-116. 2012.
    A review of the stakeholder literature reveals that the concept of "normative core" can be applied in three main ways: philosophical justification of stakeholder theory, theoretical governing principles of a firm, and managerial beliefs/values influencing the underlying narrative of business. When considering the case of Wall Street, we argue that the managerial application of normative core reveals the imbedded nature of the fact/value dichotomy. Problems arise when the work of the fact/value d…Read more
  •  61
    Enhancing Stakeholder Practice: A Particularized Exploration of Community
    with Laura Dunham and Jeanne Liedtka
    Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1): 23-42. 2006.
    Lack of specificity around stakeholder identity remains a serious obstacle to the further development of stakeholder theory andits adoption in actual practice by business managers. Nowhere is this shortcoming more evident than in stakeholder theory’s treatment of the constituency known as “community.”In this paper we attempt to set forth what we call “the Problem of Community” as indicative of the definitional problems of stakeholdertheory. We then begin the process of gaining greater specificit…Read more
  •  55
    The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998 5-6. 1998.
  •  43
    The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 3 1-3. 2002.
  •  41
    The separation of technology and ethics in business ethics
    with Kirsten E. Martin
    Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4): 353-364. 2004.
    The purpose of this paper is to draw out and make explicit the assumptions made in the treatment of technology within business ethics. Drawing on the work of Freeman (1994, 2000) on the assumed separation between business and ethics, we propose a similar separation exists in the current analysis of technology and ethics. After first identifying and describing the separation thesis assumed in the analysis of technology, we will explore how this assumption manifests itself in the current literatur…Read more
  •  37
    Related Debates in Ethics and Entrepreneurship: Values, Opportunities, and Contingency
    with Susan S. Harmeling and Saras D. Sarasvathy
    Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3): 341-365. 2009.
    In this paper, we review two seemingly unrelated debates. In business ethics, the argument is about values: are they universal or emergent? In entrepreneurship, it is about opportunities – are they discovered or constructed? In reality, these debates are similar as they both overlook contingency. We draw insight from pragmatism to define contingency as possibility without necessity. We analyze real-life narratives and show how entrepreneurship and ethics emerge from our discussion as parallel st…Read more
  •  37
    Connected Moral Agency in Organizational Ethics
    with George W. Watson and Bobby Parmar
    Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2): 323-341. 2008.
    We review both the aspects of values-related research that complicate ideations of what we ought to do, as well as the psychological impediments to forming beliefs about the way things are. We find that more traditional moral theories are without solid empirical footing in the psychology of human values. Consequently, we revise the notion of values to align with their socially symbolic utility in self-affirmation and reformulate our understandings of moral agency to allow for the practicalities …Read more
  •  36
    The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 4 1-5. 2004.
  •  32
    Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage: The Theory and Practice of Stakeholder Engagement in Scandinavia (review)
    with Robert Strand
    Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1): 1-21. 2015.
    In this article, we first provide evidence that Scandinavian contributions to stakeholder theory over the past 50 years play a much larger role in its development than is presently acknowledged. These contributions include the first publication and description of the term “stakeholder”, the first stakeholder map, and the development of three fundamental tenets of stakeholder theory: jointness of interests, cooperative strategic posture, and rejection of a narrowly economic view of the firm. We t…Read more
  •  32
    Ethics and HRM: The Contribution of Stakeholder Theory
    with Michelle Greenwood
    Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (3-4): 269-292. 2011.
    The development of an ethical perspective of HRM that is both employee centered and explicitly normative and, as such, distinct from dominant and criticalperspectives of HRM has progressed in recent years. Reliance on the traditional “threesome” of rights/justice theories, deontology and consequentialism, however, has limited debate to micro-level issues and the search for a “solution.” By understanding the employment relationship as a stakeholder relationship, we open the ethical analysis of HR…Read more
  •  28
    Tensions in Stakeholder Theory
    with Rajendra Sisodia and Robert Phillips
    Business and Society 59 (2): 213-231. 2020.
    A number of tensions have been suggested between stakeholder theory and strategic management. Following a brief review of the histories of stakeholder theory and mainstream SM, we argue that many of the tensions are more apparent than real, representing different narratives about stakeholder theory, SM, business, and ethics. Part of the difference in these two theoretical positions is due to the fact that they seek to solve different problems. However, we suggest how there are areas of overlap, …Read more
  •  26
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia: An Overview
    with Robert Strand and Kai Hockerts
    Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1): 1-15. 2015.
    Scandinavia is routinely cited as a global leader in corporate social responsibility and sustainability. In this article, we explore the foundation for this claim while also exploring potential contributing factors. We consider the deep-seated traditions of stakeholder engagement across Scandinavia including the claim that the recent concept of “creating shared value” has Scandinavian origins, institutional and cultural factors that encourage strong CSR and sustainability performances, and the r…Read more
  •  25
    A Feminist Reinterpretation of The Stakeholder Concept
    Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4): 475-497. 1994.
    Stakeholder theory has become one of the most important developments in the field of business ethics. While this concept has evolved and gained prominence as a method of integrating ethics into the basic purposes and strategic objectives of the firm, the authors argue that stakeholder theory has retained certain “masculinist” assumptions from the wider business literature that limit its usefulness. The resources of feminist thought, specifically the work of Carol Gilligan, provide a means of rei…Read more
  •  25
    Poor People and the Politics of Capitalism
    with Adrian Keevil and Lauren Purnell
    Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (3-4): 179-194. 2011.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the current conversation about the relationship between capitalism and the poor assumes a story about business that is shopworn and outmoded. There are assumptions about business, human behavior, and language that are no longer useful in the twenty first century. Business needs to be understood as how we cooperate together to create value and trade. It is fundamentally about creating value for stakeholders. Human beings are not solely self-interested,…Read more
  •  25
    Special Issue on Stakeholder Thinking: A Tribute to Juha Nasi (review)
    with Salme Nasi and Grant Savage
    Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1): 1-1. 2010.