•  164
    Conscientious objection and emergency contraception
    American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6). 2007.
    This article argues that practitioners have a professional ethical obligation to dispense emergency contraception, even given conscientious objection to this treatment. This recent controversy affects all medical professionals, including physicians as well as pharmacists. This article begins by analyzing the option of referring the patient to another willing provider. Objecting professionals may conscientiously refuse because they consider emergency contraception to be equivalent to abortion or …Read more
  •  123
    Rule-consequentialism is frequently regarded as problematic since it faces the following powerful dilemma: either rule-consequentialism collapses into act-consequentialism or rule-consequentialism is inconsistent. Recent defenders of this theory such as Brad Hooker provide a careful response to this objection. By explicating the nature and theoretical commitments of rule-consequentialism, I contend that these maneuvers are not successful by offering a new way of viewing the dilemma which retains…Read more
  •  90
    The situationist challenge to global character traits claims that on the basis of findings in social psychology, we should only accept at most the existence of local or context-sensitive traits. In this article I explore a neglected area of J. S. Mill's work to outline an account of context-sensitive traits. This account of traits, coupled with a sophisticated consequentialist ethical framework, suggests an interesting view on which persons govern the circumstances of their actions in order to b…Read more
  •  90
    Conscientious Objection, Emergency Contraception, and Public Policy
    Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1): 53-68. 2011.
    Defenders of medical professionals’ rights to conscientious objection (CO) regarding emergency contraception (EC) draw an analogy to CO in the military. Such professionals object to EC since it has the possibility of harming zygotic life, yet if we accept this analogy and utilize jurisprudence to frame the associated public policy, those who refuse to dispense EC would not have their objection honored. Legal precedent holds that one must consistently object to all forms of the relevant activity.…Read more
  •  62
    Is there no alternative? Conscientious objection by medical students
    Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10): 602-604. 2012.
    Recent survey data gathered from British medical students reveal widespread acceptance of conscientious objection in medicine, despite the existence of strict policies in the UK that discourage conscientious refusals by students to aspects of their medical training. This disconnect demonstrates a pressing need to thoughtfully examine policies that allow conscience objections by medical students; as it so happens, the USA is one country that has examples of such policies. After presenting some ba…Read more
  •  57
  •  56
    Consequentialist teleology and the valuation of states of affairs
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (3): 253-265. 2004.
    Elizabeth Anderson claims that states of affairs are merely extrinsically valuable, since we value them only in virtue of the intrinsically valuable persons in those states of affairs. Since it considers states of affairs to be the sole bearers of intrinsic value, Anderson argues that consequentialism is incoherent because it attempts to globally maximize extrinsic value. I respond to this objection by distinguishing between two forms of consequentialist teleology and arguing that Anderson''s cl…Read more
  •  55
    Individual Responsibility within Organizational Contexts
    Journal of Business Ethics 62 (4): 397-405. 2005.
    Actions within organizational contexts should be understood differently as compared with actions performed outside of such contexts. This is the case due to the agentic shift, as discussed by social psychologist Stanley Milgram, and the role that systemic factors play in shaping the available alternatives from which individuals acting within institutions choose. The analysis stemming from Milgram’s experiments suggests not simply that individuals temporarily abdicate their moral agency on occasi…Read more
  •  50
    In this paper I defend the Reasonability View: the position that medical professionals seeking a conscientious exemption must state reasons in support of their objection and allow those reasons to be subject to evaluation. Recently, this view has been criticized by Jason Marsh as proposing a standard that is either too difficult to meet or too easy to satisfy. First, I defend the Reasonability View from this proposed dilemma. Then, I develop this view by presenting and explaining some of the cen…Read more
  •  46
    Intentions, the nature of fantasizing and naughty fantasies
    Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (2): 159-161. 2002.
  •  28
    Scouring the scourge: Spontaneous abortion and morality
    American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7). 2008.
  •  15
    Abortion and the ways we value human life
    Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (2): 225-228. 2004.
  •  13
    Pure aretaic ethics and character
    Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (4): 473-484. 2004.
  •  11
    Federal provider conscience regulation: unconscionable
    Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8): 471-472. 2009.
    This paper argues that the provider conscience regulation recently put into place in the USA is misguided. The rule is too broad in the scope of protection it affords, and its conception of what constitutes assistance in the performance of an objectionable procedure reveals that it is unworkable in practice. Furthermore, the regulation wrongly treats refusal of other reproductive services as on a par with conscientious objection to participation in abortion. Finally, the rule allows providers to…Read more
  •  11
    The Market View on conscientious objection: overvalued
    Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3): 168-172. 2019.
    Ancell and Sinnott-Armstrong argue that medical providers possess wide freedoms to determine the scope of their practice, and therefore, prohibiting almost any conscientious objections is a bad idea. They maintain that we could create an acceptable system on the whole which even grants accommodations to discriminatory refusals by healthcare professionals. Their argument is premised upon applying a free market mechanism to conscientious objections in medicine, yet I argue their Market View posses…Read more
  •  3
    Medical Care at the End of Life
    Philosophy Now 55 14-17. 2006.
  • Moral Decision-Making: Consequentialism and Character
    Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison. 1997.
    Bernard Williams has argued that on a consequentialist moral theory, individuals cannot possess what he calls "integrity." I argue that one central strand of this criticism concerns how persons must think about life-shaping decisions. I interpret "integrity" as a pattern of continuity in an agent's moral decision-making. In order to have integrity an agent must possess a stable character which unifies one's choices. Since a sophisticated consequentialist moral structure can properly value the ha…Read more