•  3020
    Manipulation in Politics
    Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. 2021.
  •  2453
    Radials, Rollovers and Responsibility: An Examination of the Ford-Firestone Case
    with Daniel E. Palmer
    Journal of Business Ethics 56 (2): 185-204. 2005.
    In August of 2000, Firestone executives initiated the second largest tire recall in U.S. history. Many of the recalled tires had been installed as original factory equipment on the popular Ford Explorer SUVs. At the time of the recall, the tires and vehicles had been linked to numerous accidents and deaths, most of which occurred when tire blowouts resulted in vehicle rollovers. While Firestones role in this case has been widely acknowledged, Ford executives have managed to deflect much of the a…Read more
  •  932
    Manipulative Actions: A Conceptual and Moral Analysis
    American Philosophical Quarterly 33 (1). 1996.
    Manipulative actions come in a bewildering variety of forms: direct and indirect deception, playing on emotions, tempting, inciting, and so on. It is not obvious what feature all these actions share in virtue of which they are all of the same kind and in virtue of which they are all morally wrong. This article argues that all manipulative actions are cases in which the manipulator attempts to lead the victim astray by trying to get her to have emotions, beliefs, or desires that, as the manipul…Read more
  •  889
    Special agents: Children's autonomy and parental authority
    In David Archard & Colin M. Macleod (eds.), The Moral and Political Status of Children, Oxford University Press. pp. 97--117. 2002.
    Cognitive incompetence cannot adequately explain the special character of children's moral status. It is, in fact, because children lack preference structures that are sufficiently stable over time that they are not ’temporally extended agents’. They are best viewed as 'special agents’, and parents have the responsibility of fostering the development of temporally extended agency and other necessary related moral capacities. Parental authority should be exercised with the view to assisting child…Read more
  •  376
    Integrity, the self, and desire-based accounts of the good
    Philosophical Studies 96 (3): 301-328. 1999.
    Desire-based theories of well-being claim that a person's well-being consists of the satisfaction of her desires. Many of these theories say that well-being consists of the satisfaction of desires that she would have if her desires were "corrected" in various ways. Some versions of this theory claim that the corrections involve having "full information" or being an "ideal observer." I argue that well-being does not depend on what one would desire if she were an “ideal observer.” Rather, it d…Read more
  •  371
    Autonomy, Value, and Conditioned Desire
    American Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1). 1995.
    Conditioning can produce desires that seem to be outside of--or “alien” to--the agent. Desire-based theories of welfare claim that the satisfaction of desires creates prudential value. But the satisfaction of alien desires does not seem to create prudential value. To explain this fact, we need an account of alien desires that explains their moral status. In this paper I suggest that alien desires are desires that would be rational if the person believed something that in fact she believes is…Read more
  •  346
    From the Nature of Persons to the Structure of Morality
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (4): 531-565. 2001.
    Intuitionism—in some form or another—is the most widely recognized and thoroughly discussed method of justification for moral theories. It rests on the claim that a moral theory must not deviate too much from our pre-theoretical moral convictions. In some form or another, this methodology goes back at least as far as Aristotle, and has been discussed, refined, and defended by such contemporary philosophers as John Rawls and Norman Daniels.There is, however, another methodology for constructing a…Read more
  •  344
    Kantian Respect and Particular Persons
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 29 (3): 449-477. 1999.
    A person enters the moral realm when she affirms that other persons matter in the same way that she does. This, of course, is just the beginning, for she must then determine what follows from this affirmation. One way in which we treat other persons as mattering is by respecting them. And one way in which we respect persons is by respecting their wishes, desires, decisions, choices, ends, and goals. I will call all of these things ‘aims.’ Sometimes we respect another person's aims simply byrefra…Read more
  •  304
    Addiction, Compulsion, and Persistent Temptation
    Neuroethics 9 (3): 213-223. 2016.
    Addicts sometimes engage in such spectacularly self-destructive behavior that they seem to act under compulsion. I briefly review the claim that addiction is not compulsive at all. I then consider recent accounts of addiction by Holton and Schroeder, which characterize addiction in terms of abnormally strong motivations. However, this account can only explain the apparent compulsivity of addiction if we assume—contrary to what we know about addicts—that the desires are so strong as to be irresis…Read more
  •  250
    Impartially Optimizing Consequentialism requires agents to act so as to bring about the best outcome, as judged by a preference ordering which is impartial among the needs and interests of all persons. IOC may seem to be only rational response to the recognition that one is only one person among many others with equal intrinsic moral status. A person who adopts a less impartial deontological alternative to IOC may seem to fail to take seriously the fact that other persons matter in the same way …Read more
  •  176
    Parents are usually appreciated as possessing legitimate moral authority to compel children to make at least modest sacrifices in the service of widely shared values of moral decency. This essay argues that such authority justifies allowing parents to authorize a child to serve as an organ or tissue donor in certain circumstances, such as to authorize bone marrow donations to save a sibling with whom the potential donor shares a deep emotional bond. The approach explored here suggests, however, …Read more
  •  166
    What my suggestion rules out – if it is right – is the project of using some thesis about the conative or cognitive nature of motivation to argue for some thesis in meta-ethics. [...] facts about human motivation can be captured equally well with conativist or cognitivist language. And if that is true, then nothing about motivation either implies or rules out internalist moral realism.
  •  80
    Manipulation, salience, and nudges
    Bioethics 32 (3): 164-170. 2018.
    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing ‘nudges’, which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as the…Read more
  •  75
    Utilitarianism seems to require us to sacrifice a person if doing so will produce a net increase in the amount of utility. This feature of utilitarianism is extremely unattractive. The puzzle is how to reject this requirement without rejecting the plausible claim that we are often wise to trade lesser amounts of utility for greater amounts. I argue that such a position is not as paradoxical as it may appear, so long as we understand the relationship between the value of utility and the value of …Read more
  •  37
    Impossible obligations and the non-identity problem
    Philosophical Studies 176 (9): 2371-2390. 2019.
    In a common example of the non-identity problem, a person deliberately conceives a child who she knows will have incurable blindness but a life well worth living. Although Wilma’s decision seems wrong, it is difficult to say why. This paper develops and defends a version of the “indirect strategy” for solving the NIP. This strategy rests on the idea that it is wrong to deliberately make it impossible to fulfill an obligation; consequently, it is wrong for Wilma to create Pebbles because doing so…Read more
  •  33
    Pressure, Trickery, and a Unified Account of Manipulation
    American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (57): 241-252. 2020.
    Although manipulation is neither rational persuasion nor coercion, a more precise definition remains elusive. Two main accounts have been offered. One characterizes manipulation as a form of trickery. The other characterizes manipulation as a form of non-coercive pressure. Each account properly identifies only a subset of intuitively clear cases of manipulation. That is, some instances of manipulation apparently involve pressure, while others apparently involve trickery. Yet trickery and pressur…Read more
  •  32
    The Public Conception of Autonomy and Critical Self-reflection
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (4): 495-515. 1997.
  •  25
    Noah M. Lemos, intrinsic value: Concept and warrant
    Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (2): 183-188. 1998.
  •  15
    The Ethics of Parenthood
    Social Theory and Practice 38 (1): 173-179. 2012.
    Book review: Norvin Richards, The Ethics of Parenthood.