•  268
    In this paper, we propose a conceptual model to improve moral sensitivity in human resource development (HRD) to assist human resource (HR) practitioners in contending with moral challenges in HRD. The literature on the relationship between ethics and HRD suggests that the organizational and employee development discipline deals with ethical issues at three different levels: Individual, organizational and communal, and international levels. In section I, we elaborate on moral challenges facing H…Read more
  •  136
    In this paper, I argue that Kantian ethics is not inclusive, and his formulation of CI fails. It excludes some intuitive moral actions. I show that Kant’s formulation of categorical imperative fails in some important category of moral actions, due to the fact that its first formula (i.e., the formula of universal law ) is contingent, and doesn't necessarily obtain in all categories of moral actions. Wood in 1999 shows that the formula of universal law is incomplete, however, I argue that it is n…Read more
  •  120
    In Delusions of consciousness, Blackmore supports illusionism on consciousness, using a Humean approach toward "self." First, she tries to explain away the intuitive, realistic viewpoint on self-consciousness; she "explains why some the illusionary self-consciousness is so compelling" by claiming a "simple mistake in introspections" and tries to explain it away. Secondly, she concludes that the idea of illusionary self-consciousness shows the delusion of consciousness per se. In this paper, firs…Read more
  •  103
    In this paper, we argue that an inclusive and effective community resilience approach requires empathy as a missing component in the current engineering education and practice. An inclusive and effective community resilience approach needs to be human-centric, individual- and communal-sensitive, justice-oriented, and values-based consistent. In this paper, we argue that three kinds of empathy, namely cognitive, affective, and conative, play a central role in creating and sustaining an inclusive …Read more
  •  82
    What does it mean to say that an agent has a reason to do a certain action? Does it mean that she would desire to do the action, or that there is some external consideration, which she ought to follow? Or is there a third alternative? The debate between Humean affective (i.e., desire-based) and classical Kantian cognitive theories has seemingly ended up in a theoretical standoff, and so most of the contributors have recently focused on the conative attitude of motivation - either preceded by aff…Read more
  •  56
    Mulla Sadra: zindigī wa afkār (2)
    Journal of Philosophical Belief 4 (4): 45-55. 2015.
    Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi (ca. 1571–1636), known as Mulla Sadra, is one of the three important philosophers (with Avicenna, and Suhrawardi) in Islamic philosophy, after the period of the first prominent Islamic philosophers i.e., Averroes and al-Farabi.
  •  56
    Mulla Sadra’s life and thoughts (2)
    Journal of Philosophical Belief 4 (4): 45-55. 2015.
    Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi (ca. 1571–1636), known as Mulla Sadra, is one of the three important philosophers (with Avicenna, and Suhrawardi) in Islamic philosophy, after the period of the first prominent Islamic philosophers i.e., Averroes and al-Farabi.
  •  55
    Argument from Consciousness
    Seven Heavens 53 (14): 137-164. 2012.
    Consciousness is one of the most complex phenomena of the world. As philosophy of mind, together with psychology and cognitive sciences, developed, consciousness was seriously studied in the twentieth century. Many attempts have been made to explain the nature of this mysterious phenomenon and the way in which it has come into being; as a result, different theories have been offered about it. In this paper, a variety of naturalistic theories of consciousness have been considered, and their weakn…Read more
  •  55
    Empathic Design for Community Resilience
    with Amir Esmalian
    Scholarly Community Encyclopedia. 2021.
    Empathic design, which is the outcome of embedding the empathic approach in community resilience, will meet all four critical features of any models which are supposed to satisfy both physical resilience and humanistic considerations. It holds that in addition to the technical knowledge, engineers have to care about the humanistic side of the engineering process as well. Empathic design refers to a design in which the designers, as well as the technical specifications, consider the humanistic as…Read more
  •  52
    Burhān Agāhī (Argument from Consciousness)
    Seven Heavens 14 (53): 137-164. 2012.
    Consciousness is one of the most complex phenomena of the world. As philosophy of mind, together with psychology and cognitive sciences, developed, consciousness was seriously studied in the twentieth century. Many attempts have been made to explain the nature of this mysterious phenomenon and the way in which it has come into being; as a result, different theories have been offered about it. In this paper, a variety of naturalistic theories of consciousness have been considered, and their weakn…Read more
  •  49
    Ethical considerations play a key role in the proposed frameworks for COVID-19 vaccine allocation. Based on a set of ethical principles, these frameworks make recommendations on those who should be prioritized for vaccination. WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts of Immunization (SAGE)1, the National Academy of Medicine (NAM)2, and the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (JHCHS)3 have issued frameworks for allocation and prioritization of COVID-19 vaccination. None of these frameworks ha…Read more
  •  43
    Contextual Reason and Rationality
    Dissertation, Texas A&M University. 2019.
    In Internal and External Reasons, Bernard Williams proposes a speculative argument for the idea that internal reasons are the only kind of normative reason, and that his counterfactual internal interpretation is the only truth condition for both kinds of reason-statements, H and S (H: “A has a reason to φ” and S: “There is a reason for A to φ”). He takes for granted, however, that internal and external reasons are the only possible kinds of normative reasons at work: his argument is therefore qu…Read more
  •  40
    Mulla Sadra: zindigī wa afkār (life and thoughts) (1)
    Journal of Philosophical Belief 3 (3): 49-57. 2012.
    Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi (ca. 1571–1636), known as Mulla Sadra, is one of the three important philosophers (with Avicenna, and Suhrawardi) in Islamic philosophy, after the period of the first prominent Islamic philosophers i.e., Averroes and al-Farabi.
  •  38
    Mulla Sadra: zindigī wa afkār (life and thoughts) (1)
    Journal of Philosophical Belief 3 (3): 49-57. 2012.
    Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi (ca. 1571–1636), known as Mulla Sadra, is one of the three important philosophers (with Avicenna, and Suhrawardi) in Islamic philosophy, after the period of the first prominent Islamic philosophers i.e., Averroes and al-Farabi.
  •  35
    Pragmatic Theory of Meaning
    PhilPapers. 2020.
    In this paper, I propose a pragmatic theory of meaning. In section 1, I clarify the distinction between meanNN and meanN proposed by Grice (1957), and I suggest a new distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic meanNN. In section 2, I shall explain Grice theory of meaning and criticize it. In section 3, I explain the classical theory of meaning and shall propose some consideration about it. Then, in section 4, I shall elaborate on the pragmatic theory of meaning, and I explore its differen…Read more
  •  15
    Mulla Sadra’s life and thoughts (1)
    Journal of Philosophical Belief 3 (3): 49-57. 2012.
    Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi (ca. 1571–1636), known as Mulla Sadra, is one of the three important philosophers (with Avicenna, and Suhrawardi) in Islamic philosophy, after the period of the first prominent Islamic philosophers i.e., Averroes and al-Farabi.
  •  12
    The Mirage of Motivation Reason Internalism
    Journal of Value Inquiry 56 1-19. 2022.
    What is it for an agent to have a reason to do a certain action? Does this mean that she would desire to do the action under specified conditions, or that there is some external consideration, which she ought to follow? The former affective (i.e., desire-based) theory is ascribed to Humeans, whereas the latter cognitive theory is adopted by Kantians. The debate between the two views has seemingly ended up in a theoretical standoff, and most of the theorists of practical reason have recently turn…Read more
  •  5
    In this paper, I argue for a probabilistic theory of trust, and the plausibility of “trustworthy AI” in which we trust (as opposed to mere reliance). I show that the current trust theories cannot accommodate trust pertaining to AI, and I propose an alternative probabilistic theory, which accounts for the four major types of AI-related trust: an AI agent’s trust in another AI agent, a human agent’s trust in an AI agent, an AI agent’s trust in a human agent, and an AI agent’s trust in an object (i…Read more
  • Scarce Resources and Priority Ethics: Why Should Maximizers be More Conservative?
    with A. Kazemi and A. Seyedkazemi
    Ethics, Medicine, and Public Health 18. 2021.
    Summary Background The principle of maximization, which roughly means that we should save more lives and more years of life, is usually taken for granted by the health community. This principle is even more forceful in crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, where we have scarce resources which can be allocated only to some patients. However, the standard consequentialist version of this principle can be challenging particularly when we have to reallocate a resource that has already been given to a p…Read more
  • It includes some of the central issues in metaphysics. It is aimed at all students who have studied some basic courses in metaphysics and philosophy. Some of the topics, which are discussed in this book are as follows: the problem of universals, the nature of abstract entities, the problem of individuation, the nature of modality, identity through time, the nature of time, the nature of parts and wholes, the problem of metaphysical indeterminacy, the Realism/anti-Realism debate.