•  202
    The Automaton Chronicles
    with Kanta Dihal
    Nature 2018 (559): 473-475. 2018.
    A brief history of affective responses to AI.
  •  192
    The Motivations and Risks of Machine Ethics
    Proceedings of the IEEE 107 (3): 562-574. 2019.
    Many authors have proposed constraining the behaviour of intelligent systems with ‘machine ethics’ to ensure positive social outcomes from the development of such systems. This paper critically analyses the prospects for machine ethics, identifying several inherent limitations. While machine ethics may increase the probability of ethical behaviour in some situations, it cannot guarantee it due to the nature of ethics, the computational limitations of computational agents and the complexity of th…Read more
  •  35
    The Whiteness of AI
    with Kanta Dihal
    Philosophy and Technology 33 (4): 685-703. 2020.
    This paper focuses on the fact that AI is predominantly portrayed as white—in colour, ethnicity, or both. We first illustrate the prevalent Whiteness of real and imagined intelligent machines in four categories: humanoid robots, chatbots and virtual assistants, stock images of AI, and portrayals of AI in film and television. We then offer three interpretations of the Whiteness of AI, drawing on critical race theory, particularly the idea of the White racial frame. First, we examine the extent to…Read more