•  2
    On the (Too) Many Faces of Consciousness
    Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (7-8): 61-66. 2021.
  • Rational Disagreement in Peer Review (review)
    Science, Technology and Human Values 10 (3): 55-62. 1985.
  •  9
    Codes, communication and cognition
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42. 2019.
    Brette criticizes the notion of neural coding because it seems to entail that neural signals need to “decoded” by or for some receiver in the head. If that were so, then neural coding would indeed be homuncular, requiring an entity to decipher the code. But I think Brette's plea to think instead in terms of complex, interactive causal throughput is preaching to the converted. Turing has already shown the way. In any case, the metaphor of neural coding has little to do with the symbol grounding p…Read more
  • Grounding Symbolic Representation in Categorical Perception
    Dissertation, Princeton University. 1992.
    How do internal symbols become connected to the object they stand for?$\sp1$ A symbol system is a set of physical objects or states and the formal rules for manipulating them. The rules are syntactic, operating only on the shapes of the symbols, not their meanings. Yet the symbol combinations can be given a systematic interpretation or states of affairs ). These meanings, however, are not "grounded"; they derive from the mind of the interpreter of the symbols. How can the meanings of symbols be …Read more
  •  154
    Explaining the mind: Problems, problems
    The Sciences 41 (2): 36-42. 2001.
    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble . Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science are not insoluble. Five books are reviewed in this context
  •  15
    The evolu on of language made it possible for us to think aloud, share our thoughts, pass them on by word‐of‐mouth.
  •  16
    Scholars and scientists do research to create new knowledge so that other scholars and scientists can use it to create still more new knowledge and to apply it to improving people's lives. They are paid to do research, but not to report their research: That they do for free, because it is not royalty revenue from their research papers but their "research impact" that pays their salaries, funds their further research, earns them prestige and prizes, etc.
  •  71
    Categorical perception
    In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Nature Publishing Group. pp. 67--4. 2003.
  •  222
    SUMMARY: Universities (the universal research-providers) as well as research funders (public and private) are beginning to make it part of their mandates to ensure not only that researchers conduct and publish peer-reviewed research (“publish or perish”), but that they also make it available online, free for all. This is called Open Access (OA), and it maximizes the uptake, impact and progress of research by making it accessible to all potential users worldwide, not just those whose universities…Read more
  •  677
    Human cognition is not an island unto itself. As a species, we are not Leibnizian Monads independently engaging in clear, Cartesian thinking. Our minds interact. That's surely why our species has language. And that interactivity probably constrains both what and how we think.
  •  54
    There are many entry points into the problem of categorization. Two particularly important ones are the so-called top-down and bottom-up approaches. Top-down approaches such as artificial intelligence begin with the symbolic names and descriptions for some categories already given; computer programs are written to manipulate the symbols. Cognitive modeling involves the further assumption that such symbol-interactions resemble the way our brains do categorization. An explicit expectation of the t…Read more
  •  43
    Do scientists agree? It is not only unrealistic to suppose that they do, but probably just as unrealistic to think that they ought to. Agreement is for what is already established scientific history. The current and vital ongoing aspect of science consists of an active and often heated interaction of data, ideas and minds, in a process one might call "creative disagreement." The "scientific method" is largely derived from a reconstruction based on selective hindsight. What actually goes on has m…Read more
  •  17
    Maybe it's just because hermeneutics is so much in vogue these days, but I've lately come to believe that the secret of the meaning of life is revealed by certain jokes from the state of Maine. The pertinent one on this occasion (and some of you will recognize it as one I've invoked before) is the one that goes "How's your wife? to which the appropriate deadpan downeaster reply is: "Compared to what?&quot.
  •  33
    According to "computationalism" (Newell, 1980; Pylyshyn 1984; Dietrich 1990), mental states are computational states, so if one wishes to build a mind, one is actually looking for the right program to run on a digital computer. A computer program is a semantically interpretable formal symbol system consisting of rules for manipulating symbols on the basis of their shapes, which are arbitrary in relation to what they can be systematically interpreted as meaning. According to computationalism, eve…Read more
  •  11
    Research is done (mostly at universities) and funded (publicly and privately) in order to advance scientific and scholarly knowledge as well as to produce public benefits (technological and biomedical applications as well as educational and cultural ones). Research and researchers are accordingly funded not only to conduct their research, but to make their findings public, by publishing them. Their employment, salaries, careers and research funding depend on publishing their findings. This is wh…Read more
  •  40
    Against computational hermeneutics
    Social Epistemology 4 167-172. 1990.
    Critique of Computationalism as merely projecting hermeneutics (i.e., meaning originating from the mind of an external interpreter) onto otherwise intrinsically meaningless symbols.
  •  14
    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem (Harnad 2001). The only way to "solve" it is to provide a causal/functional explanation of how and why we feel..
  •  9
    This article is a critique of: The "Green" and "Gold" Roads to Open Access: The Case for Mixing and Matching Jean-Claude Guédon Serials Review 30(4) 2004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2004.09.005 Open Access (OA) means: free online access to all peer-reviewed journal articles.
  •  571
    Distributed processes, distributed cognizers and collaborative cognition
    [Journal (Paginated)] (in Press) 13 (3): 01-514. 2005.
    Cognition is thinking; it feels like something to think, and only those who can feel can think. There are also things that thinkers can do. We know neither how thinkers can think nor how they are able do what they can do. We are waiting for cognitive science to discover how. Cognitive science does this by testing hypotheses about what processes can generate what doing (“know-how”) This is called the Turing Test. It cannot test whether a process can generate feeling, hence thinking -- only whethe…Read more
  •  66
    Metaphor and Mental Duality
    In T. Simon & R. Scholes (ed.), Language, Mind, And Brain, Erlbaum. pp. 189-211. 1982.
    I am going to attempt to argue, given certain premises, there are reasons, not only empirical, but also logical, for expecting a certain division of labor in the processing of information by the human brain. This division of labor consists specifically of a functional bifurcation into what may be called, to a first approximation, "verbal" and "nonverbal" modes of information- processing. That this dichotomy is not quite satisfactory, however, will be one of the principal conclusions of this chap…Read more
  •  14
    Certain biological facts are undeniable: Any creature born with a tendency to ignore the calls of nature -- not to eat when hungry, not to mate when horny, not to flee when in harm's way -- would not pass on that unfortunate tendency. Such a creature would instead be the first in a long line of extinct descendents. Maladaptive traits are eliminated from the gene pool by the very definition of what it means to be maladaptive.
  •  242
    Distributed cognition: Cognizing, autonomy and the Turing test
    with Itiel E. Dror
    Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2): 14. 2006.
    Some of the papers in this special issue distribute cognition between what is going on inside individual cognizers' heads and their outside worlds; others distribute cognition among different individual cognizers. Turing's criterion for cognition was individual, autonomous input/output capacity. It is not clear that distributed cognition could pass the Turing Test
  •  26
    In memoriam: Jeffrey gray (1934–2004)
    with Helen Hodges, Barbara L. Finlay, and Paul Bloom
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1): 1-2. 2004.
    Many strands are woven into the ideas and work of Jeffrey Gray. From a background of classical languages and a spell in military intelligence spent honing skills in languages and typing, he took two BA degrees (in modern languages and psychology) at Oxford University. He then trained as a clinical psychologist at the Institute of Psychiatry (IOP), London, capping this with a PhD on the sources of emotional behaviour.
  •  18
    Le modele d'ancrage propose ici est simple a recapituler. Les projections sensorielles analogiques sont les intrants des reseaux neuronaux qui doivent apprendre a connecter certaines des projections avec certains symboles (le nom de leur categorie) et certaines autres projections avec d'autres symboles (les noms d'autres categories pouvant se confondre les unes aux autres), en trouvant et en utilisant les invariants qui les representent de facon a favoriser l'accomplissement d'une categorisation…Read more
  •  10
    In innate Categorical Perception (CP) (e.g., colour perception), similarity space is "warped," with regions of increased within-category similarity (compression) and regions of reduced between-category similarity (separation) enh ancing the category boundaries and making categorisation reliable and all-or-none rather than graded. We show that category learning can likewise warp similarity space, resolving uncertainty near category boundaries. Two Hard and two Easy texture learning tasks were com…Read more
  •  154
      Computation is interpretable symbol manipulation. Symbols are objects that are manipulated on the basis of rules operating only on theirshapes, which are arbitrary in relation to what they can be interpreted as meaning. Even if one accepts the Church/Turing Thesis that computation is unique, universal and very near omnipotent, not everything is a computer, because not everything can be given a systematic interpretation; and certainly everything can''t be givenevery systematic interpretation. B…Read more
  •  87
    Why and how the problem of the evolution of universal grammar (UG) is hard
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5): 524-525. 2008.
    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) suggest that language is an organism, like us, and that our brains were not selected for Universal Grammar (UG) capacity; rather, languages were selected for learnability with minimal trial-and-error experience by our brains. This explanation is circular: Where did our brain's selective capacity to learn all and only UG-compliant languages come from?