•  13
    A Meinongian Analysis of Fictional Objects
    Grazer Philosophische Studien 1 (1): 73-86. 1975.
    This paper explores the view that there are such things as fictional objects, and that we refer to such objects when we say things like "Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective", or "Conan Doyle wrote about Sherlock Holmes". A theory of such objects is developed as a special application of a Meinongian Ontology.
  •  11
    X—Worldly Indeterminacy of Identity
    with Peter Woodruff
    Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 95 (1): 171-192. 1995.
  •  7
    Frege and the Hierarchy
    with Tyler Burge, Peter A. French, Theodore E. Uehling, and Howard K. Wettstein
    Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2): 495-496. 1983.
  •  5
    Nonexistent Objects
    Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (2): 652-655. 1980.
  •  19
    Nonexistent Objects
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 40 (1): 96-99. 1980.
  •  3
    Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics
    Mind 111 (442): 466-470. 2002.
  •  10
    Indeterminacy of Identity of Objects and Sets
    with Peter W. Woodruff
    Noûs 31 (S11): 321-348. 1997.
  • The Elimination of Individual Concepts
    Dissertation, Stanford University. 1966.
  •  20
    Exploring Meinong's Jungle and Beyond by Richard Routley (review)
    Journal of Philosophy 80 (3): 173-179. 1983.
  •  3
    Russell's Early Views on Denoting
    In D. F. Austin (ed.), Philosophical Analysis, Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 17--44. 1988.
  •  122
    Frege's Hierarchies of Indirect Senses and the Paradox of Analysis
    Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6 (1): 37-58. 1981.
  •  223
    Indeterminancy of identity of objects and sets
    with Peter W. Woodruff
    Philosophical Perspectives 11 (s11): 321-348. 1997.
  •  10
    The Treatise on Univocation is an early work on the fallacy called univocation. This fallacy is a kind of ambiguity due to the shifted reference of words in a sentence when the ambiguity does not fall under the well-known Aristotelian kinds (equivocation, composition and division, . . .). Examples include the shift of reference of common terms due to tense and modality; e.g. the shift whereby the reference of 'giraffe' is extended to past or future giraffes when the tense of the sentence 'A gira…Read more
  •  44
    Afterthoughts on mass terms
    Synthese 31 (3-4). 1975.
    This is a short note indicating how I would revise an earlier paper ("an analysis of mass terms and amount terms," "foundations of language", Volume 6, Number 3, 1970) in the light of criticisms that have been made of it
  •  2
  •  13
    What is an Argument?
    Journal of Philosophy 93 (4): 164-185. 1996.
  •  97
    The progressive in English: Events, states and processes (review)
    Linguistics and Philosophy 12 (2). 1989.
    This paper has two goals. The first is to formulate an adequate account of the semantics of the progressive aspect in English: the semantics of Agatha is making a cake, as opposed to Agatha makes a cake. This account presupposes a version of the so-called Aristotelian classification of verbs in English into EVENT, PROCESS and STATE verbs. The second goal of this paper is to refine this classification so as to account for the infamous category switch problem, the problem of how it is that modific…Read more
  •  240
    Bhartrhari on what cannot be said
    Philosophy East and West 51 (4): 525-534. 2001.
    Bhartṛhari claims that certain things cannot be signified--for example, the signification relation itself. Hans and Radhika Herzberger assert that Bhartṛhari's claim about signification can be validated by an appeal to twentieth-century results in set theory. This appeal is unpersuasive in establishing this view, but arguments akin to the semantic paradoxes (such as the "liar" paradox) come much closer. Unfortunately, these arguments are equally telling against another of his views: that the tha…Read more
  •  138
    This paper follows up a suggestion by Paul Vincent Spade that there were two Medieval theories of the modes of personal supposition. I suggest that early work by Sherwood and others was a study of quantifiers: their semantics and the effects of context on inferences that can be made from quantified terms. Later, in the hands of Burley and others, it changed into a study of something else, a study of what I call global quantificational effect. For example, although the quantifier in ‘¬∀xPx’ is un…Read more
  •  21
    Nonexistent Objects
    Philosophical Review 94 (3): 427. 1985.
  •  56
    Meinongian Semantics Generalized
    Grazer Philosophische Studien 50 (1): 145-161. 1995.
    It is tempting to think that Meinong overlooked the "specific/nonspecific" distinction. For example, 'I am looking for a grey horse' may either mean that there is a specific horse I am looking for (e.g. one I lost), or just that I am grey-horse-seeking. The former reading, and not the latter, requires for its truth that there be a grey horse. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether it is defensible to maintain Meinong's theory here: to take nonspecific reading of any verb concerning …Read more
  •  71
    Terence Parsons presents a lively and controversial study of philosophical questions about identity. Because many puzzles about identity remain unsolved, some people believe that they are questions that have no answers and that there is a problem with the language used to formulate them. Parsons explores a different possibility: that such puzzles lack answers because of the way the world is (or because of the way the world is not). He claims that there is genuine indeterminacy of identity in the…Read more
  •  26
    The doctrine of distribution
    History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (1): 59-74. 2006.
    Peter Geach describes the ?doctrine of distribution? as the view that a term is distributed if it refers to everything that it denotes, and undistributed if it refers to only some of the things that it denotes. He argues that the notion, so explained, is incoherent. He claims that the doctrine of distribution originates from a degenerate use of the notion of ?distributive supposition? in medieval supposition theory sometime in the 16th century. This paper proposes instead that the doctrine of di…Read more
  •  98
    True Contradictions
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3). 1990.
  •  68
    Anaphoric pronouns in very late medieval supposition theory
    Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (5). 1994.
    This paper arose from an attempt to determine how the very late medieval1 supposition theorists treated anaphoric pronouns, pronouns whose significance is derivative from their antecedents. Modern researches into pronouns were stimulated in part by the problem of "donkey sentences" discussed by Geach 1962 in a section explaining what is wrong with medieval supposition theory. So there is some interest in seeing exactly what the medieval account comes to, especially if it turns out, as I suspect,…Read more